Good Example Of Main Thesis Of This Paper Article Review

Type of paper: Article Review

Topic: Sports, Soccer, Belief, Behavior, Psychology, Education, Hypothesis, Theory

Pages: 3

Words: 825

Published: 2021/02/22

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Article Critique: Soccer Fans

Article Critique: Soccer Fans


The aim of this paper is to review the empirical study conducted on the various dimensions of superstitious behaviors and beliefs on Turkey soccer fans. The paper will discuss the main thesis and critically analyze various fundamental aspects of the paper. Key among them is the sample selected hypothesis, statistical tests, and the relevance of the finding. The paper will aim at developing a new research hypothesis that other researchers in future might find viable to utilize.

The researcher main thesis fundamentally lay on the superstitious beliefs and behaviors that exist amongst various football fans in turkey before and usually after the games. The researcher sought to reveal valuable information about both the fans and athletes superstitious beliefs and behaviors. The researcher strives to depict the kind of superstitious beliefs that exist, the role of they play amongst fans and the influence of such beliefs on soccer fans behaviors.

Sample selected critique

The researcher distributed 330 questionnaires to Eskisehirspor football club fans that regularly participate in the Turkish national league. 258 fans responded representing a seventy-seven percent response rate. The questionnaires were distributed in the stadium before Eskisehirspor team played Galatasaray.
The sample selected was the non-probabilistic sample. The sample data collected is unrepresentative of the whole population. The researcher could have collected data from all the football clubs that participate in the Turkish Super league in order to get a solid feedback. Also importantly, the sample size is too small in comparison to the number of football fans in Turkey. Therefore, the results realized might end up giving up the wrong conclusion.

Hypothesis Critique & Statistical tests used for each hypothesis

The researcher alternate hypothesis states that there is a significant relationship that explains the soccer fans superstitious beliefs and the kind of behaviors’ they portray. Hair et al., 1995 suggested the five-factor analysis that used the Eigenvalue criteria to explain the variance in the relationship. The Bartlett test for sphericity was conducted that indicated the variance of the hypothesis. The scales used included, Lucy behavior, totems, bad luck, lucky items and ignore. The coefficient alpha as indicated in the research was used to calculate and measure the rate of internal consistency of the data as well as assess the quality of the statistical instruments utilized (Hopkinson & Pujari 1999). The research revealed a scale reliability of 0.73 which means that the various dimensions used in the research had a high coefficient ratings that were greater than the exhorted levels of 0.7 (Nunnally, 1978).
The measures are reliable and valid because other scholars have previously utilized them in the past. However, more factors should be included in the model in order to ensure that all factors that can be efficiently used to show the relationship exists as brought forward by the alternate hypothesis.


The findings have been classified into the following key categories, which describe various aspects of the soccer fans. They include demographic characteristics, game attendance, and experience, superstitious factors. The demographic characteristics reveal that most participants were males who represented fifty-nine percent. Students constituted the biggest percentage of soccer fans in the stadium, and the average income was 499 US dollars.
Soccer fans focus on the majority of their home matches in addition to their away games, however; the home matches are well attended as compared to the away games. The false notion factors could only be explained 50.25 % of the total variance. The superstitious considerations acknowledged include bad lack beliefs, lucky behaviors, ignore, totems. The total scale of reliability was measured as being 0.73 when translated it means that the factors had a high coefficient rating high above the exhorted level, which was 0.7.The research shows that no more than fifty percent of all superstitious variables could be explained.

A New Research Hypothesis That Future Research Could Test.

An alternate Hypothesis
A significant relationship exists between the soccer fans superstitious beliefs and the level of football player’s performance at the various levels of plays in all professionally managed leagues


The paper focused on analyzing the study conducted on the superstitious beliefs and behaviors of Turkey super league soccer fans. The sample size collected did not represent the whole population of soccer fans in Turkey as the sample only focused on only one single football club soccer fans. The problem is that it left out on sports fans and teams from different regions in Turkey. Therefore, the findings will differ with other findings from other teams and fans not included in the research.
Lastly, I believe further research on this particular research topic is necessary as it has the potential of exposing all the possible factors that could lead to the understanding of the various superstitious beliefs and behaviors. The findings of this empirical study would aid marketers as they would be able to develop marketing strategies to take advantage of such beliefs and behaviors’. The research also reveals fundamental aspects that could in future be utilized in the psychology sphere to explain various aspects of the football games such as performance.


Nunnally, J. C. (1978) Psychometric Theory, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hall, New York.
Hopkinson, G.C., & Pujari, D. (1999). A factor analytic study of the sources of meaning in
hedonic consumption. European Journal of Marketing, 33, 273-290.
Scott, M., Webster, R. J. and Saucier, D. A. (2014). Methodological and theoretical
improvements in the study of superstitious beliefs and behavior, British Journal of Psychology, 105, 102-126.

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