Good Example Of The History And Ethics Of Horse Racing Research Paper

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Racing, Horses, Race, Information, Trauma, Literature, Animals, Industry

Pages: 7

Words: 1925

Published: 2021/03/03

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“Special Agent’s rider hustled him furiously; Pollard tracked him like a tiger.

Rounding into the bend for home, Pollard let a loop of reins slip through his
fingers. Seabiscuit ate up the length of rein, bounding past Special Agent and
leaving Woolf and Indian Broom flat-footed. The race caller yelled, “Here
comes Seabiscuit!” and a joyful shout rose over the track.” (Hillebrand)
A horse race is two or more jockeys riding horses over a set distance. But anyone who has ever watched a movie similar to “The Black Stallion”, “National Velvet”, or “Seabiscuit” knows how thrilling a horse race can be. Televised events like the Kentucky Derby pass along the excitement of the horses coming around the last lap to the finish line and exuberant winners celebrating in the stands. But watching a horse race in a theatre is very different from being involved in the horse racing industry firsthand.
According to HorseCouncil.org (2015), there are 4.6 million people in the United States involved in the horse racing industry. These include trainers, owners, employees, service providers, and volunteers. Not including the spending involve in off-site betting, the impact of horse racing is approximately $102 billion dollars annually taking into account the multiplier effect. It provides about 460,000 employees full-time jobs; if suppliers and their employees are included in the figure, there are 1.4 million people with full-time jobs involved with horse racing. Of the 9.2 million horses in America, 844,531 are used for horse racing. Overall, horse racing influences the national economy by producing services and goods totaling $38.8 billion with a ultimate influence of $101.5 billion on the United States’ gross domestic product.
Horse racing is a complex sport. There are many aspects involved and each represents thousands of people as spectators, investors, trainers, and breeders. A review of news articles and journal publications include the different types of horse track wagering, the complexities of breeding programs, the role of the jockeys, tourism based on the industry, associated injuries, and allegations of abuse.
With this type of information in hand, the question is asked, “Should horse racing be legal in the United States?”. A review of the literature will bring to light past claims of abuse, refutations by racing associations and breeders, suggestions for regulations, and other pertinent information. The hypothesis is that based on the information gathered during a literature review, horse racing should continue to be legally allowed in the United States.

Literature Review

A review of the literature concerning the horse racing industry appears to have topics not specifically related to the horses themselves. However, the complexity of the sport draws on multiple factors to create the world of professional horse racing. From the tourism drawing thousands of spectators to major events to the different types of wagering to the breeding of the horses themselves, there is no shortage of information and opinion available.

HISTORY

The sport of horse racing started in the 12th century (Longrigg, 1972). Knights in England brought Arabian horses with them when they returned from the Crusades. As importation of Arabian stallions increased, they were bred to the mares in England to create a horse with speed and endurance. A competition between two of the fastest animals for placing wagers became a popular pastime for the upper class nobility. As the sport expanded into multiple animals running for wagers on one particular horse, it was determined that a governing body was needed. The Jockey Club was formed in 1750 and continues to exercise absolute control over horse racing in England today. In America, the same functions are performed by the National Thoroughbred Racing Association (NTRA).

BREEDING

The ultimate goal of a professional breeder of horses for racing is an animal that is healthy with strong bone structure, demonstrates endurance and speed, and has strong genetics for offspring (Mitchell and Roman, 2004). Over 200 years of trial and error connected with science to create theories on creating the best possible animal for horse racing. When a horse owner has invested hundreds of thousands of dollars in a stallion or mare, he wants to understand the best way to produce the optimum offspring. This can be done through biomechanics, outcrossing, statistical methods, and other involved techniques.
Genetic mutations occur naturally in horses, but detrimental ones can become prominent when a stallion is popular (Bowling, 1996). These mutations are variations in the DNA code and the cell stops working appropriately. With the use of artificial insemination when the sperm is shipped to the facility housing the mare, the likelihood of genetic mutation increases. Lethal White Foal is a genetic disorder that results in the death of the animal. The Leopard Complex causes night blindness. Genetic testing can determine if a horse has mutations either recessively or dominantly for transmission (Bowling, 1996).
Horse registries are an important way to determine if a horse should be bred. For instance, the American Quarter Horse Association mandates Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis (HYPP) testing for bloodlines that carry the mutation. Beginning in 2007, if a horse has two copies of the HYPP mutation, he cannot be registered. The condition has been traced back to one quarter horse stallion, Impressive. Gene pool saturation dictates that horses cannot be pulled from breeding because they carry a recessive gene for a mutation disease. Ethically speaking, a horse breeder should have the inexpensive genetic testing prior to creating a foal (Bowling, 1996).
In 2013, the winner of the Belmont Stakes was California Chrome (Woo, 2014). At that time, the owner had to decide whether to end his racing career at that point and retire him. The moment he won the race, his owner took a $4 million purse and the stallion became worth $15 million to a stud farm. However, if he continues to race successfully and wins the Breeder’s Cup Classic, the purse is $2.7 million. The Dubai World Cup awards $6 million to the horse in first place (Frank, 2015).
But horses have been permanently injured and even died on the track, as in the case of Barbaro, the stallion who was killed in the 2006 Preakness after winning the Kentucky Derby. To insure California Chrome will cost $500,000 annually (Woo, 2014). The owners have to decide if they want the safe alternative to retire the winning horse or keep racing him in the expectation he will continue to win; loses will drive down the value of the stallion even after a taking an impressive title.

JOCKEYS

A jockey on a winning horse claims about 10% of the purse (Herring 244). But C.C. Lopez, a jockey working out of Monmouth Park, states that the result of a typical thoroughbred horse race is "probably 95% horse, 5% rider." The typical jockey is small, wiry, and considered to be superb athletes by the people who understand what is required to ride a horse to victory (Mitchell). But there are also possibilities for injury. The average jockey is 115 pounds and when riding an animal weighing approximately 1200 pounds, he would become a projectile if the horse should fall at a speed of close to 35 miles per hour.
The jockey is also capable of unethical treatment of the horse. He may use an electric prod to induce the animal to faster speeds. He is also responsible for making decisions about where to be in the race; these decisions may mean life or death for the stallion in an effort to place him in a position to win (Herring, 2005).

THE GAMBLING INDUSTRY OF HORSE RACING

In the late 1800’s, a booming industrial economy opened the doors to gambling on “the ponies.” By 1890, there were 341 racetracks in the United States. However, when gambling was in place the criminal element followed and resulted in corruption. Practically every state banned bookmaking in reaction to the illegal activities associated with gambling and the number of racetracks plummeted to only 25. However, pari-mutuel betting was set in place and states legalized the activity for a share of the gambling money. In this type of gambling, the person placing the wager isn’t betting against the race track; he is betting against other gamblers. Part of the interest in horse racing lies in the betting aligned with it (Beyer, 2007). The odds of winning are determined by how many people support which horses. Estimates of the amount of betting on horses worldwide are in the area of $115 billion (Campbell, 2012). Today, approximately every state in America has tracks for racing thoroughbred horses with varying amounts of purses. For instance, the owner of a horse winning the American Triple Crown will pocket up to $1 million. This adds to the excitement on race day for everyone involved.

ASSOCIATED INJURIES

The discussion of the ethics of horse racing would not be complete without a discussion of the related injuries to the animals. Stover (2003) wrote an article concerning the situations that cause a horse to become lame. She considers conditions that cause lameness occur over a time period of weeks or months. This is important to consider since there would be many opportunities for trainers to take steps to address the problem. The solutions include minimizing low hoof heel angle, avoiding the use of high toe grabs, decreasing the time spent in high speed races in exercises, and avoiding too much high speed distance training. If a trainer recognizes mild injuries, he should rehabilitate the horse rather than continue with hard training.
Dr. Mike Scott (2013) blames suspensory ligament injuries for lameness in many race horses. They also have a high rate of occurring again after an initial incidence. The primary function of the ligament in a horse is to prevent the fetlock joint to overextend. These types of injuries are affected by the surface on which the horse is trained and the shoe on the hoof. Since this injury can be difficult to diagnose, trainers should be educated in watching for the signs. An ultrasound x-ray will confirm any suspicions of a suspensory ligament injury. A rest period of three months is suggested for rehabilitation. But when a horse if being trained for an important race, this would seem prohibitive to a trainer. This is the circumstance that tempts many trainers to medicate for pain and continue extensive training. While minor strains have an excellent prognosis, allowing the horse to train may result in extensive damage and euthanasia is the only alternative (Scott, 2013).

USE OF MEDICATIONS

Drugs given to a horse before he is to race is called “race day medication” (Blood-Horse Staff, 2014). These drugs enhance the animal’s performance on the track. They include furosemide (Lasix or Salix), which is permitted by the NTRA. Furosemide is used to prevent exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. It acts as a diuretic, causing fluid to be expelled from the body through the urine for a short time. However, some trainers and race track owners are asking for an investigation and ban on race-day drugs. This is a highly volatile subject in debates today. The use of any other drug not recommended by a veterinarian such as antibiotics for infections, is considered illegal and unethical.

ALLEGATIONS OF ABUSE

With America rich with horse racing history, it is inevitable the sport should come under intense scrutiny by associations alert for possibilities of animal cruelty. The price of the top horses in the racing industry can run in the range of $1 million or more, not including the value of the horse for breeding after retirement from the track (Frank, 2013). For that reason, one would think every consideration would be given to keep the animal healthy and contented. Yet there are numerous articles in the press concerning allegations of abuse to the horses racing. Joe Drape, of the New York Times, wrote the piece, “PETA Accuses Two Trainers of Cruelty to Horses” on March 19, 2014 (Drape, 2014). In it, he states one trainer administered drugs to horses without medical problems, used pain killers to train and run injured horses, and encouraged a jockey to use an electric prod to encourage his horse to run faster. The outcome of these allegations is not available.
"Wild Ride: The Rise and Tragic Fall of Calumet Farm Inc., America's Premier Racing Dynasty" by Ann Hagedorn Auerbach discusses corruption in the horse racing industry (Hagedorn, 1994). The book traced the activities of a man who destroyed an historic and successful horse breeding and racing corporation that created two winners of the Triple Crown and eight winners of the Kentucky Derby. It defended the bulk of the stables, but addresses the hidden ways trainers and jockeys can abuse the horses to capture the purse.

IN DEFENSE OF THE INDUSTRY

The means to be a responsible horse breeder and racing horse owner are available. Through the use of inexpensive genetic testing, many inherited diseases can be avoided. Responsible trainers have the ability to create exercise regimens that work the horses to their potential without damaging their bones or internal organs. Close supervision by authorities have the power to discover and stop the illegal use of performance-enhancing drugs and pain-killers to mask injuries (Drape, 2014).
The horse-racing industry employs hundreds of thousands of people in fulltime positions. States receive substantial revenue for their operating budgets through the support of peri-mutuel betting. Tourism to events like the Kentucky Derby or the Preakness races brings millions of dollars to the cities that host them. These benefits should outweigh the ugliness created by unscrupulous trainers and greedy owners.
It’s difficult to determine if the numbers and events regarding horses euthanized for various reasons, atrocities attributed to trainers, and horrendous living conditions for horses after retirement are true. A review of the literature finds allegations of events, but no more than a handful of documentations. The ones that can be verified hint at corruption below the surface of the horse racing industry, but little of the supposed activities have come to the light. If the abuse of race horses is so rampant, do so few people care that it goes unreported? By reading books and articles by reputable sources, the decision is impossible to make.

Methodology

Choice of Topic. When considering the broad topic of “Animals Used for Recreation,” the determination was made to choose horse racing primarily due to the large amount of research material available. After an initial survey of the various influences in horse racing related to the topic of ethics, it was decided to gather information on:
History. Horse racing formally started in England during the 12th century and written documentation of the sport is readily available (Longrigg, 1972).
Breeding. The purpose of breeding is important to the performance of the animals on the race track, but musculoskeletal and ligament problems arise related to genetics (Scott). In addition, with a limited gene pool, genetic mutations have developed that require investigation prior to breeding by responsible owners.
Jockeys – As the most important person during the race to the horse, jockeys frequently make decisions to accelerate or reposition during the competition that the animal itself cannot determine (Mitchell, 2002). Also, the relationship between the horse and rider can determine the influences of the animal’s temperament on the judgment of the jockey. There have been instances where the jockeys have been asked to use unethical means to prompt the horse to speed, such as electric cattle prods.
Betting/Gambling – A multi-billion dollar factor in horse racing, it carries tremendous influence on horse racing (Campbell, 2012). Legislation is based on types of gambling that offer a financial return to the state, betting on horses on-site promotes tourism, and public support of the sport lies in large part on the wagers placed on racing results.
Associated Injuries – A horse is predisposed to the injuries many hoofed, four-legged animals experience (Stover, 2003). However, the extensive training endured by a race horse promotes the possibilities of some of these injuries and pressure to keep the animal in training doesn’t allow for the rest and rehabilitation required. This invites medicating for performance and creating the possibility of life-threatening injuries during the race.
Use of Medications – Medications for racing horses appear to revolve around performance enhancing drugs to mask pain and promote speed with diuretics and other medications to change the normal functioning of the body (Blood-Horse Staff, 2014). These are usually considered illegal by supervisory agencies, but detection is difficult.
Allegations of Abuse – There has been some documentation of proven incidents of abuse and neglect in the industry, but only by a few individuals with influence (Drape, 2014). More intensive research is necessary to determine if these were isolated instances or rampant in the industry as some sources allege.
Defenses for the Sport – Among other benefits, there are over 400,000 fulltime jobs provided by the horse racing industry and states collect revenue for inclusion in project budgets (Campbell, 2012).
Design. Qualitative research is more appropriate to a literature review. It has an open, exploring aspect that has the opportunity to reveal information not originally included in the hypothesis. The goal of the design was to reveal pertinent information, categorize the findings into a pattern of persuasion, present statistical findings from reliable sources, and make recommendations.
Data Collection. Information was gathered from research literature. There were also other options for data collection in additional research: watching videos on YouTube, conducting interviews with people currently in the sport or retired from it, requesting more current or in-depth information from agencies associated with the industry, actual attendance to a horse race, and continuing research from the multitude of sources currently available.
Ethical Consideration. Attention was paid to ethics in the course of the project which are apparent from the beginning of the research to the end with the determination of the conclusion and presentation of arguments. All personal contacts were informed of the purpose of the data collection and given contact information. We asked permission formally for the information related to be included in the study.
Validity and Reliability. We defined “validity” as the extent to which research is conducted with responsible sources and an attempt to verify information. We defined “reliability” as receiving the same answers to questions from multiple sources.

LIMITATIONS

The nature of the topic of horse racing is broad, but the variables combine to create an argument. The methodology of a literature review is subjective; inclusion or exclusion of information can influence the conclusion drawn. There is also the complexity of the subject to address; the amount of influence by interactions of the variables is difficult to determine. Since some of the variables (gambling, abuse) are criminal activities, factual statistics may be difficult to obtain.

Conclusion

As the public becomes more concerned about the ethical treatment of animals through media presentation, the subject of horse racing has come under scrutiny. While racing horses has been a historic recreational for centuries, today horse racing organizations and breeders have been held accountable for the humane treatment of the horses. Large sums of money ride on the results of the races, from local to international events. The gambling industry supplies income directly and indirectly for almost every person involved in racing, from employees to participants to state tax rolls. For that reason, the horse racing world should be allowed to continue under strict regulations and monitoring with substantial penalties imposed on those who commit violations.
A professional race horse is similar to a human professional athlete in that they are selected for their physical attributes and emotional commitment. However, a human athlete can determine when and how he or she will compete while a race horse is forced to perform under the demands of his owner. When properly regulated, horse racing has the potential to remain the profitable and entertaining pastime it has been in the past without any abuse of the animals.

Annotated Bibliography

Beyer, Anew. The Winning Horseplayer. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2007. Print.
The main purpose of the book is to detail strategies on gambling handicapping. The contents include case studies and stories about “betting on the ponies”. The possible audience for the book is people interested in gambling on horse racing. It contained detailed information of the different types of wagers a gambler could use, but I chose not to go into that much depth.
Blood-Horse Staff. “Some Top Trainers Support Phasing Out Salix”. BloodHorse.com. N.p.,
2014. Web. 11 Feb. 2015.
This is an article written by a horse journal concerning the use of Lasix on race day to prevent fluid buildup around the heart of the horse as he exerts intense exercise for a short period of time. Due to incidences of bleeding in the lungs, there is a movement to ban the practice. Several leading trainers are supporting the ban. The audience would be anyone interested in the horse racing industry, but it was written by a horse magazine and may have bias toward the ban based on the possible injuries to the horses.
Bowling, Ann T. Horse Genetics. Wallingford: CAB International, 1996. Print.
This book is an in-depth study of breeding horses in relation to their genetics. In particular, it covers information concerning dominant and recessive genes for genetic mutations that show up in foals. Some of the diseases are fatal, but could easily be avoided with testing. The audience would be horse owners and breeders.
Campbell, A. 'National Gambling Impact Study Commission Final Report: Table Of Contents'.
Govinfo.library.unt.edu. N.p., 2012. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.
This report include statistics on the number of jobs created by the horse racing industry, the amount of money spent in tourism, the amount generated by gambling, and other important information to the argument of whether horse racing should be legal. The audience is people who need the information to form an opinion.
Day, Lindsay. 'The "Gen-Ethics" Of Breeding'. Horse Journals. 2014., 2015. Web. 11 Feb. 2015.
This article was the original source for information on horse breeding that sent me to the book by Bowling. It touched on the subjects Bowling discussed more in-depth. Again, the audience would be people looking to breed or understand breeding horses.
Drape, Joe. “PETA Accuses Two Trainers Of Cruelty To Horses”. Nytimes.com. N.p., 2014. Web. 11 Feb. 2015.
One of the articles found on allegations of abuse. It discussed two trainers accused of using medications to train horses with injuries. One trainer told a jockey to use an electric prod on the horse, which he did not do. Both trainers were banned from the tracks and fired by their employers. It was interesting that this was one of very few articles with specific cases of abuse. The audience would be people wanting information to form an opinion of the ethical aspect of horse racing.
Frank, Robert. 'How To Really Win At The Track: Own The Horse!'. CNBC. N.p., 2013. Web.
11 Feb. 2015.
This was an interesting article on the expenses associated with horse racing. It detailed the cost of the horse and the associated expenses, but it also talked about potential money to be made with a winning horse. The information was for people to understand why owners get into racing in the first place.
Hagedorn, Ann. Wild Ride. New York: Holt, 1994. Print.
This is a book based on the corrupt practices of Calumet Farms and the disastrous results of their unethical methods. The stable’s prize stallion was found wounded and euthanized. He was insured for $36.5 million. Hagedorn’s work is interesting for the history of the sport and the legal aspects. The audience would be anyone interested in horse racing and see the “bad guys” get what they deserve.
Herring, Pia. 'Do Horse Races Really Need Jockeys?'. WSJ. N.p., 2012. Web. 12 Feb. 2015
This article is a discussion of whether horses can race by themselves. The conclusion was that they cannot, that the jockey plays a very important part on the track to not only promote a triumph, but to protect the well-being of the horse. I included this information because jockeys have the potential to be involved in abuse of the horses and other unethical treatment.
Hillenbrand, Laura. Seabiscuit. New York: Random House, 2001. Print.
I used this book for the excerpt at the beginning of the paper. I wanted to portray the thrill of the race rather than just numbers and related topics. You could almost feel yourself there. The audience would be anyone who has never seen or attended a horse race.
Horsecouncil.org. 'National Economic Impact Of The U.S. Horse Industry | American Horse
Council'. N.p., 2015. Web. 11 Feb. 2015.
This is a supplemental piece for statistical information on the impact of the horse racing industry on the economy. It was included to inform the reader of the financial implications of the sport.
Horseracegame.com. 'Horse Racing History - History & Evolution Of Horse Racing'. N.p., 2015.
Web. 11 Feb. 2015.
This article was the one that led me to the Longrigg book. It touched on how horse racing started in the United States and how it has changed over the years. It included some information not found in the Longrigg book.
Longrigg, Roger. The History of Horse Racing. New York: Stein and Day, 1972. Print.
This book is a comprehensive work on horse racing from its inception during medieval times. It was fascinating at times with the scope of the details. It was intended for readers who have no information about the rich history of horse racing and how it has become embedded not only in the United States, but countries around the globe.
Mitchell, Elizabeth. Three Strides Before The Wire. New York: Hyperion, 2002. Print.
This book is a chronicle of the 1999 Kentucky Derby winner, Charismatic. The follows his story from the time he was a foal to his death. The interesting parts included the relationship of the horse and all the people involved with him: owner, jockey, trainer, and so on. The audience for this book is anyone interested in a detailed story of a champion race horse.
Mitchell, Frank J, and Steven A Roman. Racehorse Breeding Theories. Neenah, Wis.: Russell
Meerdink Co., 2004. Print.
Another source for information on horse breeding, the book looks at how breeders look at bloodlines to create a horse with speed and stamina. It also shows how the bloodlines are registered and how to trace a horse alive today to one that was bred from an imported animal. The audience would be anyone interested in how the horses of today differ from those originally brought to this country.
Scott, Mike. 'Suspensory Ligament Injuries: Advances In Diagnosis And Treatment'. Horse
Journals. N.p., 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.

The article deals with different injuries in race horses, specifically ligament injuries.

These are the ones that unethical trainers will medicate for to the point where the horse is lamed and must be put down. It tells how the horse is required to rest to rehabilitate the injury and how this is such a huge problem to a trainer getting a horse ready for a specific race. The audience would be anyone interested in veterinary medicine and its relationship to horse racing.
Scully, Matthew. Dominion. New York, N.Y.: St. Martin's Press, 2002. Print.
This book discusses man, suffering of animals, and how we are neglecting our responsibilities to them. It gives too many examples of how we use the dominion God gave man over the animals to abuse them. As disturbing as it is, it forces the reader to be aware of the injustices around us. And horse racing is included. The book may be biased, but you can understand why Scully is so adamant on the topic.
Stover, Susan M. 'The Epidemiology of Thoroughbred Racehorse Injuries'. Clinical Techniques
in Equine Practice 2.4 (2003): 312-322. Web.
This article led me to the one on ligament injuries. Stover discusses a number of injuries common to the horse racing industry and how unethical trainers will knowingly permanently injure and sometimes cause the death of horses in the name of the win. She remains aloof from the subject, but she can’t help but be biased on the side of the animal. The audience would be anyone not aware of associated injuries with horse racing.
Woo, Stu. 'A Horse Owner's Biggest Gamble'. WSJ. N.p., 2014. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.
This was an interesting article on the value of a horse and when an owner should stop racing and start breeding. It discusses the money involved and the risk the owner takes keeping a stallion on the track just in case he can win the bigger purses and increase his stud fees. A reader would find it interesting if he didn’t understand that horse racing is not just about racing a horse.

Works Cited

Beyer, Anew. The Winning Horseplayer. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2007. Print.
Blood-Horse Staff. “Some Top Trainers Support Phasing Out Salix”. Bloodhorse.com (2014): n.
pag. Print.
Bowling, Ann T. Horse Genetics. Wallingford: CAB International, 1996. Print.
Campbell, A. 'National Gambling Impact Study Commission Final Report: Table Of Contents'.
Govinfo.library.unt.edu. N.p., 2012. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.
Day, Lindsay. 'The "Gen-Ethics" Of Breeding'. Horse Journals. 2014., 2015. Web. 11 Feb. 2015.
Drape, Joe. “PETA Accuses Two Trainers Of Cruelty To Horses”. NYtimes.com. 2014. Web. 12
Feb. 2015.
Frank, Robert. 'How To Really Win At The Track: Own The Horse!'. CNBC. N.p., 2013. Web.
11 Feb. 2015.
Hagedorn, Ann. Wild Ride. New York: Holt, 1994. Print.
Herring, Pia. 'Do Horse Races Really Need Jockeys?'. WSJ. N.p., 2012. Web. 12 Feb. 2015
Hillenbrand, Laura. Seabiscuit. New York: Random House, 2001. Print.
Horsecouncil.org. 'National Economic Impact Of The U.S. Horse Industry | American Horse
Council'. N.p., 2015. Web. 11 Feb. 2015.
Horseracegame.com. 'Horse Racing History - History & Evolution Of Horse Racing'. N.p., 2015.
Web. 11 Feb. 2015.
Longrigg, Roger. The History Of Horse Racing. New York: Stein and Day, 1972. Print.
Mitchell, Elizabeth. Three Strides Before The Wire. New York: Hyperion, 2002. Print.
Mitchell, Frank J, and Steven A Roman. Racehorse Breeding Theories. Neenah, Wis.: Russell
Meerdink Co., 2004. Print.
Scott, Mike. 'Suspensory Ligament Injuries: Advances In Diagnosis And Treatment'. Horse
Journals. N.p., 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.
Scully, Matthew. Dominion. New York, N.Y.: St. Martin's Press, 2002. Print.
Stover, Susan M. 'The Epidemiology Of Thoroughbred Racehorse Injuries'. Clinical Techniques
in Equine Practice 2.4 (2003): 312-322. Web.
Woo, Stu. 'A Horse Owner's Biggest Gamble'. WSJ. N.p., 2014. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.

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