Good Research Paper About Review Of Human Computer Interaction Study
This paper emphasized human-computer interaction that is a significant aspect of the computer information systems. The human computer interaction is a two way study involving humans and the computer system. The history of human-computer interaction started in the early days of the ENIAC in the 1940s and comprised of managers, programmers, and operators. The origin of human – computer interaction focus on information and the human factors aspect of HCI originated technologies including photography, statistical analysis and moving pictures. The scientific management and philosophy that was provided in 1914 has set the pace for human-computer interaction. The human-computer interaction has attained drastic improvement in computing. The advent of graphical user interface brought a revolution that transformed human-computer interaction. Programming is another significant aspect of human-computer interaction communication between the programmer and the computer system. Desktop computers that were considered great achievement have been shifted to portable devices such as smartphones. Consequently, this has made the communication easier and seamless. Hardware and software technologies are associated with human beings and computer systems. The key pillars of current human-computer interaction are linked with computer operation, information systems management and discretionary use. However, development has not reached its apex and has the potential of further advancement that will increase the relationship between humans and computer system in future.
Human-computer interaction is a vital aspect of Computer Information Systems study that has evolved over the years. It is a study that concerns itself with how humans interact with the computer system. Thus, human computer interaction is a two way study involving humans and the computer system. Moreover, the study of the interaction between humans and the computer has stood the test of time, and it is as old as computer technology itself. It is a field that requires the expertise of computer scientists and psychologists. Computer scientists are often concerned with the interaction between computers and humans in which computer comes first before humans whereas psychologists put humans before computers in their study.
History of Human – Computer Interaction
The human-computer interaction is focused on three basic fields that include computer operation, information systems management and discretionary use (Grudin, n.d). Human-computer interaction became a known field of research in relatively few decades ago, however, people have related to computer systems for a very long time. The history of human-computer interaction is the same as the history of computer system and its usage by humans that linked to the early days of the ENIAC in the 1940s (Greenberg, 2006). Here, the human-computer interaction can be broadly classified into three major roles that include managers, programmers, and operators. Licklider well stated the early advancement in human-computer interaction in a topic entitled "man-computer symbiosis". He further stated that he hoped that in not many years thence, the human brain will be closely coupled with computing machines. The resultant of the partnership will be a system that will be able to think beyond the human brain and also process data in a specific way that is far better than the computer systems of yesteryears. (Grudin, 2012).
The origin of human – computer interaction also involves the origins of human factors and the origins of the focus on information. Grudin (2012) pointed out that the human factors aspect of HCI originated in the late 19th century from technologies such as photography, statistical analysis and moving pictures. These improvements came as a result of the need to improve work practice by reducing performance time. The work of Lillian Gilbreth and her husband in 1914 set the pace in the combination of scientific management and philosophy that birthed human-computer interaction. Early technology and philosophy truly set the pace for human-computer interaction as we see it today.
Human Computer Interaction Today
Of course, human-computer interaction is an ever evolving field. The advent of graphical user interface brought a revolution in the computing world. The graphical user interface was a disruptive revolution that transformed human-computer interaction (Grudin, 2012). However, as time progressed, the graphical user interface becomes more acceptable, and revolution became less disruptive. The revolution transformed every aspect of a computer system, from the use of computer systems at home to their use in organizations. The formation of the SIGHCI (Special Interest Group in Human – Computer Interaction) by the Association of Information Systems, (AIS) in 2001, was a major positive move in the field of human-computer interaction. AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction also came on the scene in 2009. In addition, the move from organizational focus to the web and broader end-user computing is also a major move in human-computer interaction. The processes involved in the human-computer interaction are represented in figure 1.
Figure 1 Human- Computer Interface, Source adopted: Norman (n.d)
Norman (n.d) pointed out that the human-computer interface is built into a task situation and environment. The task can vary depending on what the user intends to do with the computer system. From the figure 1, the overlapped area represents the aspect of the interaction involving the activities of the human and the processes of the computer. The non-overlapped area in the human part involved cognitive processes involved in the task. But it does not require computing processes of the machine while the non-overlapping process in the computer represents computer processes that are not related directly to the interface.
In human-computer interaction, information flows from the user to the computer and also from the computer to the user. Human-computer interaction is improving by leaps and bounds especially with the current improvement in software and hardware technologies. Grudin (2012) stated that the health of technology industry is closely related to the current innovation in hardware technologies. Moreover, the boost in these technologies as well as in human-computer interaction can be interpreted from the Moore's law that can be applied in a broader scope to represent the exponential growth in this field.
Human-computer interaction today still reflects the three major roles of HCI obvious in the early days of computing. These roles including system analysis and management as well as computer operation and programming that are now the focus of human-computer interaction researches. Even though a lot of evolutions have taken place in these roles, some aspects of these early roles are still obvious in human-computer interaction.
Programming is a vital aspect of human-computer interaction as it provides a platform for effective communication between the programmer and the computer system. Carroll (2001) stated that interest in programming as a human activity increased as a result of the software crisis. Furthermore, the development of interactive computing and time sharing made it possible for new styles of programming to evolve. As time evolved, programming and system development became more centered on the user. A lot of advances have been seen in computing today and of course in human-computer interaction. Desktop computers that were the heights of the technology a few years ago have lost their spotlights to portable devices such as smartphones. This has made the communication and hence the interaction between human and computers much easier and seamless. However, it is obvious that the development has not reached its apex. The future still holds much more prospects to advancement in these technologies and the relationship between humans and computer system.
The Future of Human-Computer Interaction
It is a well-known fact that technology is maturing faster than we ever imagine. Grudin (2012) mentioned that governments and various organizations are now investing a lot of money on high-performance computing, and we can expect an exceptional advancement in this field. Myers (1998) outlined that human-computer interaction can be seen in various fields that include direct manipulation of graphical objects, the mouse, windows and so forth. These provide a medium for effective interaction with the computer. This is essentially used in different kinds of applications today. Some of these applications include drawing programs, text editing programs such as word processors like MS Word and so forth. It also includes Spreadsheets such as MS Excel, HyperText, Computer Aided Design (CAD) such as Autocad, Video Games and so forth. However, much more effective interaction is expected in the future as this field evolves. These include Gesture Recognition, more effective Multi-Media Platforms, Three Dimensional Platforms, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality, Natural Language and Speech and so forth.
As pointed out by Carroll (2011), human – computer interaction will continue to evolve. Since the 1960s, the core areas of HCI study include software engineering, software human factors, computer graphics and cognitive science. These fields have greatly evolved and will continue to evolve. Moreover, these important fields of human-computer interactions have essentially intertwined with each other over the years. More so, a number of other interesting fields have been incorporated into human-computer interaction, and these include networking, broader aspects of social science, media, information management and artificial intelligence. But this does not stop here as the future holds many prospects for human-computer interaction. In the words of Carroll (2011), the future promises to be even more exciting than the past in the field of human – computer interaction. It is projected greatly to influence all other aspects of computer science and also technology in general given the relevance of computing to technology today and the world in general.
The human-computer interaction has greatly evolved over the years and its relevance in computing today can never be overstated. This is defined as the study of the interaction or relationship between human beings and computer systems. Even though some vital aspects of human-computer interactions remains today, human-computer interaction today has enhanced given the improvement in computing. This is directly correlated to the Moore's law. The advancement in hardware and software technologies has a direct effect on the interaction between human beings and computer systems. The key pillars of human-computer interaction today include computer operation, information systems management and discretionary use. It is expected that human-computer interaction would evolve much more in the future due to current advancement in technology. This will not only affect the field of computing as we know it but also it will have a great effect on the day to day human life since computers have made their way to the home.
Carroll J.M. (2001). The Evolution of Human-Computer Interaction. Retrieved April, 7, 2015 from www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=24103
Greenberg S. (2006). History of Human Computer Interaction. Retrieved April, 7, 2015 from https://pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~saul/hci_topics/pdf_files/history.pdf
Grudin J. (2012). A Moving Target—The Evolution of Human-Computer Interaction. Retrieved April, 7, 2015 from http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/jgudin/publications/history/hcihandbook3rd.pdf
Grudin J. (n.d). Three Faces of Human–Computer Interaction. Retrieved April 7, 2015 from http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/jgrudin/publications/history/annals.doc
Myers B.A. (1998). A Brief History of Human Computer Interaction Technology. ACM Interactions. 5 (2). 44-54.
Norman K.L (n.d). Human-Computer Interface Design. Retrieved April, 7, 2015 from http://lap.umd.edu/lap/Papers/Tech_Reports/LAP1998TR02/LAP1998TR02.html
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