How To Avoid The Hazards Of Earthquakes Essay Sample

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Disaster, People, Nature, Economics, Literature, Natural Disasters, Education, Earthquake

Pages: 7

Words: 1925

Published: 2020/12/09

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The frequency of natural disasters including volcano eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis increased considerably in recent years. Although the ratio of high-magnitude natural disasters is low, the intensity leads to considerable economic and human losses. Some high-intensity earthquakes and tsunamis devastate entire cities and regions due to the level of magnitude and lack of preparation. One of the primary causes of the high economic losses and human casualties is the lack of preparedness and disaster management plans. My research will analyze the various aspects of earthquakes including the economic and human losses caused by the disasters. The research will determine and evaluate the methods and techniques to avoid the hazards and consequences of earthquakes.
Becker, Julia. S., Douglas Paton, David M. Johnston, and Kevin R. Ronan. "Salient Beliefs about Earthquake Hazards and Household Preparedness" Risk Analysis: An International Journal 33.9 (2013): 1710-1727. Print
The earthquakes in recent years throughout the world demonstrated that natural disasters and hazards could occur with limited or no warning. The earthquakes can cause a considerable amount of economic and human losses due to the intensity and magnitude. Some of the most recent earthquakes include the earthquakes in Wenchuan (2008), Haiti (2010), Christchurch (2011), and Japan (2011). The casualties of the earthquakes include “Haiti (220,000 deaths); Wenchuan (88,289 deaths) Christchurch (185 deaths); and Japan (15,500 + deaths)” (1710). The perceptions and beliefs of people regarding risk of earthquakes can significantly affect household preparedness. This research article presents a qualitative analysis of interviews relevant to the beliefs regarding earthquake risks and household preparedness. The researchers aimed to analyze the perceptions of people regarding the risk of earthquakes and their preparedness for natural disasters. The research also evaluated the effects of public education programs on perceptions of people regarding damages caused by earthquakes and the risk mitigation techniques. The researchers found three primary groups of perceptions among people regarding earthquake risks including preparedness, personal, and hazard beliefs. The study also indicated that many people perceive emergency preparedness as a way of life rather than choice of individuals.
The article appeared in the 2013 issue of the risk analysis journal in 2013 after several earthquakes around the world from 2000 to 2011. The article is interesting and relevant to the research primarily due to the context of the occurrences of earthquakes around the world. I learned that risk mitigation strategies have a close relationship with the beliefs of people regarding natural disasters and their adverse effects. I also learned that public awareness programs and occurrences of natural disasters increase the preparedness beliefs and perceptions of the society regarding earthquakes. The article is useful for my research as it highlights the risk mitigation aspect of the earthquakes along with the preparedness of individuals. The article analyzes one of the core aspects of my topic relevant to the damages caused by earthquakes and the rescue and relief efforts. The article is useful for my research because it indicates that the perceptions of people play a vital role in preparedness and risk mitigation. The article also indicates that humankind cannot avoid or prevent natural disasters, but people can implement risk mitigation strategies to cope with the consequences.
Gowan, Monica. E., Ray. C. Kirk and Jeff A. Sloan. "Building Resiliency: A Cross-Sectional Study Examining Relationships among Health-Related Quality of Life, Well-Being, and Disaster Preparedness." Health & Quality of Life Outcomes 12.1 (2014): 1-40. Print
The natural calamities and disasters are increasing throughout the world due to the changes in climate and the geographical shifts in the planet. The Pacific Rim and the Indian Ocean Regions witness some of the most devastating natural disasters in the world. The intensity of natural disasters including earthquakes and tsunamis increases the importance of factors associated with disaster preparedness. The lack of evidence relevant to the effects of quality of life and wellbeing on disaster preparedness increases the significance of thorough research. The research article aimed to analyze and evaluate the relationship between quality of life, wellbeing, and disaster preparedness among people. The researchers conducted a comprehensive survey of 2451 households to analyze the effects of quality of life and wellbeing on evacuation and disaster preparedness. The data from the research indicates, “People generally were cognitively and affectively unprepared for a devastating earthquake and tsunami” (14). However, the researchers found that wellbeing and quality of life significantly increased the preparedness and awareness of people.
This article appeared in the 2014 issue of the Health & Quality of Life Outcomes journal and provided considerable insight into emergency preparedness. The article is not only relevant to my research but also provides a unique aspect of earthquake and disaster preparedness. I learned that several factors shape the perceptions and beliefs of people with respect to the consequences of earthquakes and emergency preparedness. I discovered that we could examine emergency preparedness from distinctive approaches rather than limiting the scope. The article broadened my contemplation regarding the examination of earthquakes along with the reaction of people and the society. The article is not only useful but also important for my research as it provides a unique and diverse perspective to analyze earthquake preparedness. The concepts of wellbeing and quality of life on disaster preparedness indicate that several factors influence emergency preparedness beliefs. The increased quality of life and wellbeing of people can enhance their earthquake preparedness perceptions and beliefs.
Hayashi, Mampei. "A Quick Method for Assessing Economic Damage Caused by Natural Disasters: An Epidemiological Approach." International Advances in Economic Research 18.4 (2012): 417-427. Print
Natural disasters including tsunamis and earthquakes cause a considerable amount of human and economic losses throughout the world depending on their intensity and magnitude. The evaluation or assessment of the economic impact of a natural disaster is necessary for devising plans and budgets for recovery and rehabilitation. Most assessments use averages and aggregates to determine the economic losses caused by earthquakes. The utilization of aggregated could lead to several disparities due to bureaucratic discrepancies, faulty counting, and omissions. The author implied “when it comes to assessment of direct damage, all studies utilized one form of aggregation by parts or other” (426). The author of the article proposes a social epidemiological model to assess the economic damage of natural disasters through an efficient method. The author recommended a mathematical approach to implementing a log-linear model simplified by omitting insignificant variables. The author illustrated the effectiveness of the model by providing an assessment of the economic damage caused by the 2011 North East Japan earthquake.
This article written by Mampei Hayashi is from the International Advances in Economic Research Journal. The article provides an excellent resource for analyzing the assessment methods for economic losses caused by earthquakes and other natural disasters. I learned that most economists and governments estimate the economic effects of natural disasters by using aggregates and averages of specific groups. However, the assessment techniques lead to several anomalies in calculations and estimations due to the lack of accurate figures or numbers. I also learned that using specific mathematical methods could increase the reliability of the economic estimates. The increased accuracy of economic assessments will enable the governments to devise and implement recovery and rehabilitation plans. The article is important for my research as it highlights the flaws in existing estimation and assessment methods used by most governments. The application of the log-linear model increases the precision of the estimates as compared to traditional estimates.
National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities . Earthquakes and Schools . Online . New York : National Institute of Building Sciences, 2008.
Earthquakes are low probability and high consequence events that can tarnish a certain area within a certain period. Schools can get affected because of this menace and they can create horrendous impact on the lives of children. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damages to the buildings and infrastructure of the school. Besides that, they can cause injuries and negatively affect the psychological development of children. Major earthquakes can cause long lasting catastrophic impacts on the society and can cause serious damage to the lives of children. This report focuses on the fact that how can people reduce the damages caused by earthquakes through several strategies. The author focuses on certain points that people should remember when an earthquake occurs and they should take care of these aspects to attain benefits in the longer-run. This report mainly focuses on school safety and it directs the authorities that they should focus on certain important points through which they can easily take care of this perspective. The author states that if all the things are in working position then there is no doubt in managing the situation positively.
This source is a report written by National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities and it is present in its online form. This resource provides proactive benefits the readers when they want to inquire about hazards of earthquake in school settings. This source depicts that how students can play their role by following certain tips in the scenario of an earthquake. I have learned a lot from this resource as this source tells me about the fact that how can people help others when they are in trouble. Similarly, children and staff can coordinate each other to save the school from a horrendous situation. This sources allows me to learn about different safety procedures when an earthquake affects a school and it shows how effective implementation can benefit the school.
Becker, James and David Johnston. "Planning for earthquake hazards in New Zealand: A study of four regions ." Australian journal of emergency management (2002): 2-8.
During the historic times, New Zealand experienced numerous earthquakes and it caused several calamities in this region. This is because of the placement of New Zealand in this region and this would result in high magnitude earthquakes. A study depicted that how the authorities of New Zealand are developing this region and making proactive plans through which they can attain long-term benefits. This resource focuses on different legislative options present in this place for natural hazards. The models focused by the author revolve around aspects like natural event, human use, impact/hazard and response. Different acts and legislative forces focuses on the preventive measures and it depicts the scenario that how people can save themselves from such scenarios. The author emphasizes on the fact that how can local community plans for this scenario and how feasibly they can take preemptive measures for such scenarios.
This source is a journal article published in the Australian Journal of Emergency Management. James Becker and David Johnston wrote the article in the year 2002. It clearly analyzes the fact that how authorities can plan for earthquakes in the region of New Zealand. This article gives a pictorial representation through different maps and statistics that how certain earthquakes affect these regions. This source really helped me because it allowed me to evaluate different aspects of earthquakes and their aftermaths. It is important for the research because it highlights certain catastrophic conditions associated with earthquakes and it depicts the scenario that what are the statistics of these regions. These resources are quite viable in terms of the quality of information they provide to the users. The way information is presented depicts that how effective this would become for a research. Statistics, graphs and generalized data helps people to attain beneficial returns.
Hyndman, Donald and David Hyndman. Natural Hazards & Disasters. New Jersey: Cengage Learning, 2011.
Earthquakes strike suddenly and they do not inform people about that. They can occur at any point of time in the year and they can damage things at a rapid pace. That is the reason why people believe that individuals should coordinate with the authorities to resolve such issues. Different decision makers should try their level best through which they can benefit in the longer-run. This book also depicts that it is a natural process and people cannot do anything about this perspective. The authors believe that these topics are attractive for researchers, as they like to focus on these related perspectives. Through this book, people can understand the geological perspectives associated with earthquakes and how these earthquakes can cause havoc in different areas. This book also explains the scientific context associated with the development of earthquakes and its related factors. Students should learn about these calamities and the affects they can cause on the geology of certain areas.
This book is written by Donald Hyndman and David Hyndman and comes with the title “Natural Hazards & Disasters”. The author explains different scenarios in this book that how earthquakes occur and how people can measure their intensity. This book benefits the researcher a lot, as it evaluates several predictive measures to keep oneself safe from earthquakes. It helps me a lot as it gives a detailed over view of different perspectives. This book hold the viability to extract information and that is why I admire it a lot.

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