Mcadam And Wallace Framing Essays Example
McAdam believed that, for there to have a successful social activism there had to be these three factors which are insurgent consciousness, political opportunities structure and organization readiness (McAdam 339). These three factors formed what McAdam referred to as framing which means coming together to work as a team. McAdam noted that for people to defeat a common enemy, the surest way for emerging a winner was through working together. Further, since democracy is about tyranny of numbers, the oppressed groups such as blacks and other non-white race were urged to work together for a common goal of defeating racism. Further he believed that without unity the southern civil rights campaigns would not have gone far as white supremacist tried to use all their means to stop racial equality (McAdam 347).
The Sothern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) a black led civil right institution planned to include all the people both young and old and of all races who felt that the southern community needed a social change for the country to have a bright future (McAdam 340). It was in this organization that plans of nonviolent protests were planned. Also, SCLC strategies of working and including every liked minded person worked wonderfully, as the organization was able to receive funds for vibrant political activism (McAdam 345). It was under this umbrella by the name SCLC that the other organizations were brought together and forged to work as a united team.
McAdam felt that the media was critical in the success of SCLC campaigns against racial segregation as the media enabled the movement intention to be known all over the country. In addition, the media continuous announcement gave the SCLC a political leverage in their quest for equality for all. Since the SCLC had a backing from the government, it was easier for the pro-government media to air positively all the events of the crusades and thus enabling the organization to have successful resources mobilization from its supporters (McAdam 340).
George Wallace speech in 1964 is full of vitriol against the United States Supreme Court for enacting laws that support social justice and equality among all citizens regardless of color or race (Wallace 1). Further, this speech displays a leader’s ignorance in telling the electorates the truth about the social changes being propagates by the courts. The civil rights that the central government was enacting were to provide equal opportunities to all citizens but Wallace rubbishes the civil rights movements clamor for change as he wanted to appease his conservative voters. It has been a strategy that has and continues to be used by politicians to attract sympathy votes and appeals as they make themselves as the awaited redeemer of their aggrieved community. These kind of politicians knows how well to arouse and entice the emotions of their targeted electorates. In this case, Wallace cunningly tries to show his White brothers the reason they should not vote for someone else apart from him as he is ready to defend their conservation customs which prohibit blacks from owning properties. In addition, Wallace lied to his audience that the federal government was encouraging civil rights campaigners to unite and lead every sector of the country. To make matters worse, Wallace convincingly told his supported that, ‘A dictatorial Supreme Court has taken away our rights and our liberties” (Wallace 5). This statement was meant to set the White residents against anyone who the government would support as people would get angry and create a government backlash.
George Wallace framed the civil rights movement and federal government’s role in promoting free society for all without racial discrimination as an evil union aimed at destroying enhanced freedom and liberty of the white race. He also felt that by enacting anti-segregation laws, the federal government and the Supreme Court had overstepped its mandate by know forcing laws to citizens on which it deemed were right (Wallace 6). Moreover, Wallace thought criminalizing discrimination of whatever kind was a central government ploy to destroy private property rights where one could not freely sell his property to whoever he felt right to sell to. It was on this intention of whipping up the emotion of white majority that Wallace wanted to exploit in order to become the Democratic candidate nominee. He portrayed the civil rights groups fighting for blacks rights to vote and own property as a violation of white race freedom that was enshrined in their former constitutional system of governance (Wallace 6).
Politically, though Wallace was advocating for continued segregation, it might be that he was doing this to further his ambition after he had learnt a hard lesson from the 1958 gubernatorial election where he was defeated by a rabid segregationist (Wallace 1). Truly, from this gubernatorial loss, Wallace learnt that he had to toe the line of what the majority of his white race wanted. It is therefore not astonishing that when he was elected he chose to further the white interest in the hope that they would elect him the president of the United States of America.
McAdam Doug. The Framing Function of Movement Tactics: Strategic Dramaturgy in the American Civil Rights Movement in McAdam D, McCarthy J D, and Zald M N, eds, Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures and Cultural Framings, Cambridge University Press,1996, pp 339-340. http://ebooks.cambridge.org/chapter.jsf?bid=CBO9780511803987&cid=CBO9780511803987A027
McAdam Doug, McCarthy John D, & Zald Mayer N. 15- The Framing function of movement tactics: Strategic dramaturgy in the American civil rights movement pp. 338-356. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
McAdam Doug. "The Framing Function of Movement Tactics: Strategic Dramaturgy in the American Civil Rights Movement," in Doug McAdam, John D. McCarthy, and Mayer N. Zald, eds, Comparitive Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures and Cultural Framings. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996, p. 347.
Doug McAdam and David Snow (eds). Social Movements: Readings on their Emergence, Mobilization, and Dynamics. New York: Roxbury Press, 1997.
George C. Wallace. “The Civil Rights Movement: Fraud, Sham, and Hoax”, Modern History Sourcebook, 1964.