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The preterm labor is a complicated condition of prenatal death and morbidity. The bacterial vaginosis is considered as the reason of low birth delivery and preterm labor. Donders et al., (2009) claimed that the abnormal vaginal flora is not beneficial for the fetus. The flora occurs after pregnancy of 14 weeks. It can cause the preterm birth development. The effects of abnormal vaginal flora and BV in the initial trimester are given by the research. The second author suggests that vaginal healthy bacteria help in preserving the healthy environment. The abnormal condition in the occurrence bacteria causes the birth of low weight child and the preterm labor. Another author proposed that the probiotic bacteria facilitates in providing the strength to the treatment procedure of BV. The other author stated about the before birth and after birth conditions of the child. There are clinical directions and the threats are also related to its condition. The research was a practice based study which will mainly in improving the quality of care among 3936 Jobs opportunities. The chart audits have shown that there is no association of age and preterm birth was identified and there was no sign of abnormal condition of the body.
The preterm labor is a serious condition of perinatal mortality and morbidity. The bacterial vaginosis is known to be the reason of low birth delivery and preterm labor. It is a highly occurring vaginal infection which takes place at the gestational age. The past studies have also identified that there is a strong association between preterm labor and BV. This report focuses on the chart audit and the association of BV with the membrane ruptures.
Donders et al., (2009) stated that the abnormal vaginal flora which occurs before the pregnancy of 14 weeks is not beneficial for the fetus. This can lead to the development of preterm birth. The impacts of abnormal vaginal flora and BV in the initial trimester were identified in the research. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the research on the 1026 subjects. The research identified that there was 75% reduced risk of normal vaginal flora but the women suffering from BV are 95% increased risk of birth and preterm labor.
There are total 29 charts that have been audited which are based on six different types of deliveries. These types include cesarean low segment, spontaneous vaginal segment, vaginal breech, cesarean breech, previous cesarean and no previous cesarean. The chart 1 describes the information about the women who experienced cesarean low segment. There were 11 women who were of 29 years old who did not had preterm birth of child. In addition, they also did not have any cesarean before.
The labor type was single and the birth weight of fetus was 3636 gms. There were no signs of bacterial vaginosis, group B Strep, hepatitis B, HIV, or Syphilis among the women. Conversely, Donders et al., (2009) stated that the occurrence of BV is more severe between the 25th to 35th gestational weeks. In this research, metronidazole has been administered successfully to the women who are positive to BV and it controls the birth.
It has been suggested by Donati et al. (2010) that the vaginal healthy bacteria facilitate in maintaining a healthy environment. However, an abnormality in the occurrence of these bacteria causes the delivery of low weight fetus and preterm labor. This research article is based on the past literature. It provides a detailed analysis of BV and AV along with the risks of abnormality in vaginal organisms. The research is very beneficial which gives an extensive knowledge about the preterm of the beneficial labor.
The chart 3 explains about the women who did not have the preterm child birth. There were 12 women in the chart 2 who experienced the Spontaneous vaginal. All the patients were 24 years old and they did not have preterm birth of child. In addition, they also did not have any cesarean before. The labor type was single and the birth weight of fetus was 3306 gms. There were no signs of bacterial vaginosis, group B Strep, hepatitis B, HIV, or Syphilis among the women.
The BV is known to cause the condition of vaginal discharge in about 40 to 50% of the cases. Martinez et al., (2009) have proposed that the probiotic bacteria contain Lactobacillus rhamnosus and reuteri that provides strength to antimicrobial therapies in the treatment of BV. The research was a randomized controlled trial in which there 64 research participants. These women were divided randomly into the two groups. These women were provided with a dose of tinidazole in the probiotic capsules. The research was 28 days long in which the group given with the probiotic had the increased rates of cure. The Gram-stain Nugent score identified that the normal vaginal microbes are present. This research can be helpful on the preterm labor connection and BV.
Martinez et al., (2009) reported that the BV is a widely occurring condition and this vaginal condition is highly characterized by the duplication of lactobacilli. The antimicrobial therapy is non effective. It is further hypothesized that the Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 will be able to give cure rates and antimicrobial treatment. The research identified that the women were assessed with the normal condition of microbiota in the probiotic region. The probiotic lacto bacilli are shown to be helpful in giving benefits to the people who are treated with antibiotics for the infectious conditions.
The chart 4 gives information about the birth details of women. There were a total of three women who experienced vaginal breech and they were more than 35 years old. They experienced spontaneous vaginal delivery. There were no signs of preterm birth among the women. Moreover, they also did not have any cesarean before. The labor type was single and the birth weight of fetus was 3566 gms. There were no signs of bacterial vaginosis, group B Strep, hepatitis B, HIV, or Syphilis among the women. In the research, there was a systematic review by the 61 articles and the vaginal infection during the administration process. This paper provides strong evidence and strong patterns of risks.
The chart no. 5 indicates that the maternal age was less than 35 years old. The delivery type was vaginal forceps. The gestational age was 39. The labor type was single and the birth weight of fetus was 3245gms. There were no signs of bacterial vaginosis, group B Strep, hepatitis B, HIV, or Syphilis among the women. A research article was written by Sharp and Alfirevic, (2014) and it discusses before birth and after birth is given.
There are clinical instructions and the risk factors are also associated to its condition. The research was a practice based study which will mainly in improving the quality of care among 3936 Jobs opportunities. The research design is an audit of the retrospective chart. The evaluation of five different interventions was assessed. The chart analysis was also carried out for the comparison of the pre and post effects of implementation. The occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and vaginal infection created a positive impact which showed improper condition.
The results of the chart audit were significant. The researcher recorded that there is no significant association between the rate of infection and the rate of disease occurrence. Donders et al., (2009) have stated that the AVF and AV are related with the occurrence of severe or mild. The nonoccurrence of M. hominis, Partial BV and AVF are associated with an increase in the preterm delivery after the six days and 24 weeks. It is also ineffective towards the other different types of AVF.
The chart audit has shown that there total 29 deliveries among which the 38% were cesarean low segment, 10% were cesarean breech, 41% were spontaneous vaginal, 3% were vaginal vacuum, and 7% were vaginal forceps. The 14% women had experienced the cesarean and 86% have not experienced it. The gestational age was found to be more than 36 weeks in about 93% of the women and the gestation age was less than or equals to 36 weeks was in 7%women. There was no occurrence of bacterial vaginosis, HIV and syphilis. However, 17% women were found to have group B strep, and 3% had hepatitis B. There are 34% of women who had epidural and 66% did not had epidural.
The low birthrate was found to be in the 14% women and normal birthrate was present in the 79% women. The preterm birth was identified in 7% of the women and 93% did not had the preterm birth. These results have shown that the preterm birth is not associated with bacterial vaginosis. There were no cases of bacterial vaginosis reported in the women but the rate of preterm birth was found to be in 7% women.
The vaginal microflora of a healthy and non symptomatic woman contains many of the aerobic and anaerobic groups of bacteria. The specie and genra of these bacterial species mainly based on the anaerobic, facultative, microaerophillic and genus. The activity of lactobacillus is important for the protection of women from the occurrence of genital infections. It is also necessary to maintain the natural and healthy balance of the vaginal flora. An increase in the evidences associates the occurrence of abnormalities in the vaginal flora in the preterm labor and pregnancy.
This type of condition is very common among the populations of young women who are at the lower risk of adverse events. The pathogenic mechanism causes the complications in pregnancy and it is still not yet understood completely. The study of vaginal ecosystem with the pathogen detection is a major instrument for the prevention of preterm delivery, neonatal, maternal and puerperal infections, chorioamnionitis and the PROM. The 29 charts stated that there is no association between the preterm birth of low weight and BV. However, there can be some associated among the preterm birth weight and other infections like Syphilis, Group B Strep, and HIV. Randis et al (2014) stated that the preterm birth is known to be due to the toxin induced damage and inflammation rather than the efficiency of ascension into the upper genital tract.
It can be concluded that all of the discussed literature have shown a strong relationship between the BV and complications of pregnancy. The chart data has shown that the diseases are not based on the age and other factors. It is recommended that the proper treatment of antibiotics on the accurate time and the proper care quality can decrease the risks of preterm labor.
Donati, L., Di Vico, A., Nucci, M., Quagliozzi, L., Spagnuolo, T., Labianca, A., & Paradisi, G. (2010). Vaginal microbial flora and outcome of pregnancy. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics, 281(4), 589-600. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00404-009-1318-3#page-1
Donders, G. G., Van Calsteren, K., Bellen, G., Reybrouck, R., Van den Bosch, T., Riphagen, I., & Van Lierde, S. (2009). Predictive value for preterm birth of abnormal vaginal flora, bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis during the first trimester of pregnancy. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 116(10), 1315-1324. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2009.02237.x/abstract
Martinez, R. C., Franceschini, S. A., Patta, M. C., Quintana, S. M., Gomes, B. C., De Martinis, E. C., & Reid, G. (2009). Improved cure of bacterial vaginosis with single dose of tinidazole (2 g), Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Canadian journal of microbiology, 55(2), 133-138. Retrieved from http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/W08-102#.VR9rRvnF9jI
Morency, A., & Bujold, E. (2007). The effect of second-trimester antibiotic therapy on the rate of preterm birth. JOGC-TORONTO-, 29(1), 35. Retrieved from http://www.jogc.com/abstracts/full/200701_obstetrics_2.pdf
Randis, T. M., Gelber, S. E., Hooven, T. A., Abellar, R. G., Akabas, L. H., Lewis, E. L., & Ratner, A. J. (2014). Group B Streptococcus β-hemolysin/cytolysin breaches maternal-fetal barriers to cause preterm birth and intrauterine fetal demise in vivo. Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiu067. Retrieved from http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/03/25/infdis.jiu067.short
Sharp, A. N., & Alfirevic, Z. (2014). Provision and practice of specialist preterm labour clinics: a UK survey of practice. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 121(4), 417-421. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1471-0528.12512/epdf
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