Sample Article Review On Every Day Aggression Takes Many Forms
Aggression is defined as an often harmful, overt social interaction, where an individual bears the intention of causing damage and harm, amongst other unpleasantness towards another individual. Aggression is viewed as a universal and primal virtue amongst animals, which may occur with or without any form of provocation. However, in human beings, aggression is as a result of frustration that is caused by the blockage of goals or a predatory defensive behavior amongst individuals or groups. Aggression may take many forms and due to the complex interaction between human beings, people tend to cause hurt towards one another in various ways (Richardson, 2014). Due to this factor, this essay gives a review of the article every day aggression take many forms; explaining how people harm each other in all their day-to-day livelihoods.
Evidence obtained shows that individuals to whom we interact with frequently, such as friends, family members or romantic partners, bear greater chances of causing anger towards their partners. It is viewed as an intentional act of inflicting hurt on another individual. Individuals may show different forms of aggression by either direct or indirect actions. Direct aggressions of aggressions include; verbal or physical attack; whereas indirect aggression may be executed in forms of, giving someone the silent treatment or spreading rumors about the individual or group. Aggression may be taken in many forms that may not seem as aggressive towards other individuals or groups because people bear different forms of relationships and interactions. Some individuals may confuse aggression with assertiveness. However, assertiveness is defined as the act of openly expressing and addressing one's concerns or needs, without necessarily hurting the another person or denying them their needs (Richardson, 2014).
The most obvious kind of aggression that individuals, including animals, show is direct aggression. It involves either the direct verbal or physical attacks, whereby people strike out others using intentional actions or words. Indirect aggression is involved with the attempts to hurt another individual or group via going through the individual or object. The Richardson Conflict Response Questionnaire, a psychological survey questionnaire on human interactions, states in research that individuals are more likely to manipulate the extends of passive aggression than any other form of aggression (Richardson, 2014). It involves the for instance in romantic relationships, giving the partner the common silent treatment, refusing to pick calls or showing up late. These behaviors were characterized as aggressive by being hurtful via acts of unresponsiveness.
Gender Variations of Aggression
Society tends to view men as more aggressive as opposed to the gentle opposites. It has reached the extent that media and other groups state them to have originated from different planets. It is believed, in some cases, that men and women bear varied conceptions of aggressions. Males are known to see aggression as a way obtaining rewards, whereas, females view aggression as wrongful and inappropriate way of expressing anger. It may be linked to the hormonal factor that explains males' aggressive nature as to women's calm demeanor. Males are compounded with the hormone testosterone, which is responsible for their physical and behavioral nature. It is viewed and perceived by the society that males are naturally competitive as compared to women because they are dawned as the proactive providers of the nuclear household. Therefore, most males view it as a primal requirement to become aggressive in order to reap rewards in the ever competing world (Richardson, 2014).
The competitive nature that is seen in most males, in their pursuit to achieve rewards leads to the development of the frustration-aggression theory. However, this theory applies to all genders, irrespective of the viewed competitiveness of males (Richardson, 2014). The theory explains how aggression may be a result and a channel to showing an individual's frustration. The theory explains that when an individual is prevented from obtaining or achieving a desired goal, he or she may show frustration and can possibly channel this frustration towards the person or object denying them the ability to achieve this desired. In the similar case, the individual may channel their frustration in the form of aggression towards an unrelated individual who may not have taken part in the hindrance towards achieving their goal.
In psychotherapeutic studies by Richardson (2014), she explains that aggression as a super-ordinate drive, which dominates consciousness and motor behavior, with being a confluence of other drives. In many cases of society, aggression is viewed as a means through which individuals establish social identity, whereby identity needs an opposition that is manifested in the form of aggression.
South Richardson, D. (2014). Everyday Aggression Takes Many Forms. Current Directions In Psychological Science, 23(3), 220-224. doi:10.1177/0963721414530143