Sample Research Paper On Discussions

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Crime, Victimology, Juvenile, Discrimination, Police, Sexual Abuse, Social Issues, Psychopathy

Pages: 3

Words: 825

Published: 2020/12/11

Origins of the lack of empathy

The lack of empathy or psychopathy is a disorder that is most prevalent in the society and is common in prison inmates. Furthermore, one can conclude that an individual with tendencies of violence tends to have psychopathic traits. Psychopathy can be linked to both genes and the environmental surrounding. According to Patrick (2005), some genes have been investigated to be the reason why individuals become psychopaths. Some of the character traits of psychopaths such as manipulation, early reproduction have been linked to the Darwinians natural selection theory survival for the fittest. Using the natural selection perspective one can conclude that psychopathy is partly dependent on heredity.
On the other hand, the environment may also be a source for psychopathy. For individuals brought up in environments where they experience violence and child abuse, their development patterns are normally impaired and may well create disturbances in a person’s functioning. A study by Dadds et al., (2011) indicates that impaired attention to stimuli by the eyes is a common trait that is used as an indicator for psychopathy. From the above discussions, psychopathy may be seen to originate from developmental issues that affect a child’s upbringing.
How might the “blaming the victim” dynamic influence police investigation of crimes? Is race, gender, or age prejudice a factor? Include identifying the difference between discrimination & prejudice?
There are cases where the victim of a crime may be put on trial for actions of the offense committed by them. Such a case is common in rape victims where police sometimes may blame the victim. Accusations may include inadequate dressing or provocation by word of mouth. In cases where the attitudes of police are inclined to blame the victim, it will be clear that investigations procedures may be carried out haphazardly. As such, critical evidence that may be significant in solving the case such as collecting the DNA evidence may be lost in the process. Once the case proceeds to trial, it may be thrown out because of lack of evidence. In cases where a crime such as rape goes public during the trial, and there are instances of “blaming the victim”, the victim may undergo psychological trauma. In the process, the victim may recount statements presented earlier to the police in an effort to prevent further disgrace in the public’s eye. Once the police develop blaming the victim mentality, individuals who have experienced crime may refrain from reporting such incidents as the police may ridicule their accusations. This is especially the case if one's background such as poverty or a person’s race is involved.
Prejudice is exemplified in most cases of rape. Police may believe that skimpy dressing may contribute highly in motivating a rapist to attack a woman. As such, based on the notion of skimpy dressing they will tend to blame the women. In cases where race is involved in crime, discrimination by police may involve poorly done investigations in cases where a black homeless man was attacked or violently beaten to death. Furthermore, the police may not offer help to African American individuals based on their race when they seek police help in African American neighborhoods (Rogers and Lewis, 2013).
Discuss the rehabilitation and incarceration of juvenile sex offenders. Should there be a minimum age to be incarcerated for a sex crime? Should these youthful offenders be incarcerated in juvenile detention facilities or treated within the community?
An escalation in juvenile sex offenders in recent times has necessitated the need for incarceration and rehabilitative measures. Young ten-year-olds have been reported to be committing sexual offenses. According to Christiansen and Vincent (2013), statistics indicates that juveniles’ committed approximately 22% of all sex crimes and 15 % of all forceful rapes. Such a trend is frightening and may necessitate the need to have measures that will ensure a reduction in sex offenses. Assessment of juvenile sex offenders may indicate a possibility of recurrence of sexual offending by the juveniles if appropriate measures are not implemented. However , there is a need to have a minimum age for incarceration of juvenile offenders. For most of the juvenile offenders, there is still a chance to reform and live a law-abiding lifestyle after they attain adulthood. Consequently, to provide the reformed individuals with a chance to have normal lives it may be beneficial to stop juvenile sex registration once they attain adulthood. In cases where such records become permanent for the young juvenile offenders, stigmatization may develop (Frierson, Dwyer, Bell, and Williamson, 2007).
Incarceration of the juveniles at a young age may result in permitting and imprinting the idea on the juvenile that there is something wrong with them. As such, approaches of trying to correct their behavior may be rendered useless because of the fact that they will have the belief that they are criminals. However, this does not necessary mean that juveniles offenders hold be left to interact with the society freely, there is a need for some form of rehabilitation via juvenile correction facilities. In the facilities, different a treatment options may be applied depending on the assessment levels of the conditions that caused the juvenile sex offender to commit the sexual crime. Treatment options such as multisystemic treatment approach may require incidences where the juvenile offenders will have to intermingle with their families and the community for support, such an approach has been evaluated to be effective in reducing sexual recidivism among the young offenders (Letourneau et al., 2009)


Christiansen, A. K., & Vincent, J. P. (2013). Characterization and Prediction of Sexual and Nonsexual Recidivism among Adjudicated Juvenile Sex Offenders. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 31(4)
Dadds, M. R., Jambrak, J., Pasalich, D., Hawes, D. J., & Brennan, J. (2011). Impaired attention to the eyes of attachment figures and the developmental origins of psychopathy. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 52(3), 238-245.
Frierson, R. L., Dwyer, G., Bell, C. C., & Williamson, J. L. (2007). The mandatory registration of juvenile sex offenders and commitment of juveniles as sexually violent predators. Adolescent Psychiatry, 3055-61.
Letourneau, E. J., Henggeler, S. W., Borduin, C. M., Schewe, P. A., McCart, M. R., Chapman, J. E., & Saldana, L. (2009). Multisystemic Therapy for Juvenile Sexual Offenders: 1-Year Results From a Randomized Effectiveness Trial. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(1), 89-102.
Patrick, C. (2005). Handbook of Psychopathy. New York: Guilford Publications.
Rogers, C., & Lewis, R. (2013). Introduction to Police Work Culture and Civilization in the Middle East. Portland: Routledge.

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