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The family was successful in gun manufacturing. It is also said that the family was successful bankers. This made Francis to acquire education and knowledge from different institutions. The money to him was not a problem. He could thus pay for education easily. He could easily find the money to be used in research. His researches and book writing was found with no problem. He could easily write books and the finances used for publishing and printing was easily sourced from the family.
It is attributed that Galton’s and Darwin’s families were royal and the family fellows loved to invest in the society at their own spare time. Invention to them was also their favourite activity and hobby. The family members loved to invent at their own spare time. This attribute made Francis Galton to invent different statistical methods. The things invented by Francis also were due to his genetic inheritance and love for invention. The Darwin’s and Galton’s families were also known for literature talent. The talent in literature assisted the family and members of that lineage write books. This is the reason why Francis Galton was able to write about 340 books and papers.
It is said that Galton during his childhood liked reading. By the age of two, it is said that Galton could read Latin and Greek fluently. By the time he reached six years he could read adulthood books. It is said that he could read and analyze Shakespeare’s books of literature. He could read these books for pleasure and hobby. Poetry to him was his favourite literature and he could not live without reading poetry work. Later he proposed that there must be a relationship between insanity and genius (Cowan,2005).
Galton schooled at King Edward’s school Bermingham but later left at sixteen. He considered the curriculum offered in that school not important in life and saw that it may not assist him in his life. It is said that his parents forced him pursue medical profession. He agreed and studied at Bermingham General Hospital for two years. He furthered his medical studies at Kings College London medical school. As he continued with his medical studies he studied mathematics simultaneously at Trinity College, University of Cambridge. According to the records found in the United Grand Lodge of England, Galton became a freemason in 1844, immediately after his studies. Among his Masonic certificate known as scientific lodge was attained on 13th of March 1945.
He initially wanted to attain honours degree but this was altered his nervous breakdown. He instead went for a poll which is a pass in B.A. His intention was to be like his half cousin Charles Darwin. In 1947, he briefly resumed his medical studies. Although the death of his father left him financially stable in 1844, he became emotionally destitute. One year later after 1947, terminated his medical studies and resorted to sport, technical invention and foreign travel. It is said that in his early age, Galton liked travelling, and he had a solo trip to Constantinople through the Eastern Europe. This was before he went to Cambridge University. He made a travel to Egypt and went to river Nile. He then followed the river Nile route to Khartoum in Sudan. He then furthered his travel from Sudan down to Beirut, Damascus and later on down to Jordan. This proved him that he was an explorer.
When it comes to hereditary and eugenics, it is said that Galton was motivated by the publication of his cousin Charles Darwin on the Origin of Species. The event changed the attitude of Galton. He thus could see different species in a different way. He adopted the knowledge of Charles Darwin specifically the chapter dealing with variation and domestication. This made him to engage and carry out different researches on variation and inheritance of different species. The research emphasizes mostly on the mental ability and characteristics. He also dealt with mental features and characteristics. This compounded majorly the fingerprint patterns and facial images. This was later adopted by forensic scientists in analyzing different scientific data. The knowledge is important as it addresses different societal issues.
Galton invented historiometry a method used to measure ability to reason by various eminent human beings. He postulated that the eminent number relatives of human beings dropped as one goes from first degree towards the third degree. He evidenced this postulation by use of inheritance abilities. Galton however, knew that his method had some limitations and he advised the next generation of scientists to address the limitation by studying twins. The inheritance of intelligence and variation could be known through the study of their similarities at birth (Galton, 2007). The twins could be subjected to various environments and then test if they could diverge over such dissimilar environments. Apparently, different offspring could be subjected to similar environments and test to see if they could converge at such similar environments. This testing he proposed could be used by different scientists to address the problems found in the Galton’s method of analyzing variation.
Francis was an anthropologist, an English Victorian Progressive. He was also a psychologist. Furthermore, Francis was a polymath as well as a eugenicist. Being a geographer also made him an explorer. This made him to explore many places. He drew geographical maps. He also presented and analyzed different geographical data. His creativity in analyzing different geographical data made him to be a renowned statistician. Francis presented different inventions as he was an inventor. His records and books he wrote contain several inventions. It is recorded that he wrote about 340 books and papers.
The correlation and regression analysis methods attribute their origins towards Galton. The methods are important in analyzing various statistical data. The methods assist in solving current statistical and mathematical problems. Being a scientist, Francis is said to be the first one to apply the regression and statistical methods in studying intelligent inheritance and differences in human beings. He, thus, postulated that through statistics human beings can easily study and analyze human differences. He said through application of statistics human beings can calculate the intelligence of a human being. By study and statistical analysis, an off springs intelligence can easily be known (Rushton,2000). The mother and father, the intelligence of the offspring can be analyzed individually and comparisons can be done.
The offspring’s intelligence through statistics can thus be known and even the intelligence of off springs in that lineage can be known also. The Francis invention of this method made him more popular than before. The statistical method was later applied in collecting human beings from different communities. This was impossible before. Current statisticians use the method to collect data from different communities through the use of surveys and questionnaire. For his anthropometric studies, Galton applied the method while undertaking both biographical and genealogical studies.
Galton further recognised that circumstances such as cultural circumstances could influence the capability for a society to become civilized. The human being reproductive success could also be influenced by the same cultural circumstances. The reproductive ability according to Galton can also be influenced by environment. A human being is reproductive if they are subjected to healthy and favorable environments. On the other hand, if a human being is subjected to unfavorable environments, they will not reproduce as those found in the health and favorable environments.
Heredity according to Galton is possible if the offspring gets good environment. An offspring inherits intelligence if the environment they live in flavors such inheritance. He supported the Darwin’s theory of inheritance and environment. He argued that if a woman and a man who are both tall get married, they would bear an offspring who is homogeneously tall. However, if the offspring is subjected to unfavorable conditions, it might become dwarf. Thus, the inheritance is affected by the environment as they can be seen through the use of height.
Eugenically, Galton wrote the journal of the Eugenics Education Society. He contributed largely to the first volumes of the book. Thus he wrote while he was the president of the society. He organized for the Eugenics Congress in 1912 and it was successfully held. The attendees who were Winston Churchill and Carls Elliot praised him for organizational and leadership skills. They described him as a leader who could change the society.
According to Galton perception is tested by using the hearing and sound as the main parameters. He proposed a theory of hearing and sound. Through his Anthropometric laboratory, he studied and tested almost 9,000 people. These he used them as the sample which represented all the people. He established the Anthropometric laboratory in 1884. The laboratory, assisted him so much in his research concerning perception. He concluded that perception takes place in the society. Most of the people perceive that changes take place regularly. People perceive changes basing on the environment. When environment changes sound and hearing is used to perceive such changes.
Galton being a psychologist, he investigated the human mind. He thus came up with psychometrics, that is the science of which can be used to measure human faculties. He also studied lexical hypothesis of personality and differential psychology. In forensic science, the method which is used classify and analyze human fingerprints was coined by Galton. He postulated that the length of a prayer does not determine its effect and importance in the society. This he presented after carrying out different studies and reaches on prayer.
Galton contributed largely to the differential psychology. Through the study and research on the human abilities, he formulated and analyzed the first mental test. Fulton had much interest on the measuring every human behavior in different ways as much as possible. He assumed that human intellectual prowess is linked to reaction time and sensory discrimination (Galton, 2007). He postulated that individual differences and general ability and geared towards sensory discrimination. This led to limitation of intelligence capabilities.
In his later years, Galton tried to reach many human beings. He wrote a book entitled Kantswhere in 1910. The book explained utopia brought by Eugenic religion. The utopia tried to breed better and fitter human beings in the society. He left the book to his niece and his niece showed no interest in the book and left it unattended. The book could have assisted the society so much. Publishing the book not only gives them knowledge but also assist them to improve economically.
As he was an important and popular figure in the society, Galton received various recognitions and awards all over the world. In 1910, he received the Copley Medal from the royal society. He also received Royal award from Geographical society for his map-making and exploration of the Southwest Africa. Galton is thus an important figure in the society. He contributed to different fields ranging from medicine, geography, statistics and psychology. He left a mark in the society which will remain an important make in historical and academic fields. From all what he did and what he accomplished,he will remain a psychological as well as a scientist hero.The legacy he left is very crucial to the current and the future generations.
Francis Galton is an important psychologist who also happens to show a lot of interests in the scientific field. He was eager to learn everything new in both the fields of psychology and science. The knowledge of his half cousin Charles Darwin assisted him so much. He wanted to own a doctorate degree at the end of his education. The knowledge he generated in the society made them to grow economically. It could be used to solve scientific problems in the society.
Cowan, R. S. (2005). Sir Francis Galton and the study of heredity in the nineteenth century. New York: Garland Pub.
Galton, F. (2007). Inquiries into human faculty and its development. London: J.M. Dent & Sons.
Rushton, J. P. (2000). Sir Francis Galton, Epigenetic Rules, Genetic Similarity Theory, and Human Life-History Analysis. Journal of Personality:10.
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