The Major Causes Of Cardiovascular Diseases (Cvd) As Per Cohort Study Decisions And Other Management Studies With Evidence Basis. Research Paper Samples
Discussion of Cardiovascular Diseases and Epidemiological Rationale of CVD Prevention
Discussion of Cardiovascular Diseases and Epidemiological Rationale of CVD Prevention
Cohort study decisions alongside other evidence bases management research like case studies gives the major causes of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Lenfant, (2011) stated that the CVD like heart attack and stroke end up caused by any illness and risk factors that affect the normal functioning of the heart and the entire blood circulatory system. Firstly, too much cholesterol in the body causes CVD. Bad cholesterol called low-density lipoproteins (LDL) carries cholesterol from the liver to body cells that tend to build up along the walls of coronary arteries (Sitar-Taut & Sitar-Taut, 2010). Individuals from developed countries are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease related to high contents of bad cholesterol (LDL) in the blood arteries like atherosclerosis because of sedentary lifestyles. The consumption of fruits and vegetables and reduce the consumption of cholesterol-rich foods reduces the risk factor for CVD.
Hypertension, which refers to high blood pressure, exerts pressure on the body blood vessels when diastolic pressure is at 90mm/Hg and above or when the systolic pressure is at 140mm/Hg and above. Research by Van et al. (2010) shows that hypertension leads to more chances of coronary heart disease and it is a risk factor for stroke. The pressure exerted on the blood vessels weakens and clogs them. The blood vessels then become narrower increasing the chances of blood clots to cause arthrosclerosis. The risk of hypertension to cause CVD is high in people of 50 years old and above (Nieto, 2009). The management and prevention measure in reducing the risk factors of hypertension related CVD is by taking low salt content and maintenance of a healthy weight.
Physical inactivity can cause CVD especially to obese individuals. Prior, Jordan and Kadam, (2012) illustrated that physical exercises like running and bicycle riding regulate the body weight and bring balance to the blood pressure alongside burning of excess fats. Inactive physical activities lead to accumulation of fats in the body, and their build up causes the blood vessels to narrow restricting blood flow. People from affluent social status are at risk of CVD-related to physical inactivity because of sedentary lifestyles like watching television (Afzali, Gray & Karnon, 2013). Obese, physical disabled and older people are also at risk of suffering from CVD-related with physical inactivity factor because of low engagement in physical activities. Adopting a lifestyle of taking physical exercise reduces the risk for CVD.
CVD can also end up caused by hereditary within the family’s line of genes. Research shows a connection between heart attack and family histories (Lenfant, 2011). Hypertension and abnormal blood lipids have genetic components to transfer the trait across generations. Familial hypercholesterolemia condition is one of the inherited factors to cause coronary heart attack. Additionally, studies reveal that an individual with a first-degree relative with stroke has high chances of suffering from the disease. Ischemic stroke turns out caused by inherited hypertension from family history. Nieto (2009) found out that an individual whose parent (s) suffered from heart diseases at the age of 55 years and below has 50% chances to suffer from the ailment than the whole population. The prevention of other risk factors like avoiding taking of excessive alcohol to the individual with a family history of stroke and heart attack lowers the chances for illness.
In cases when the prevention methods in dealing with CVD fail, appropriate treatment procedures end up applied. The intervention like heart transplantation in cases of coronary heart problems replaces the infected heart (Miller, Moeller & Stafford, 2006). Artificial heart operations also help in the treatment of heart diseases. Opening of coronary artery using balloon angioplasty leads to the opening of the blocked blood artery. Additionally, in cases of a collapsed valve, its repair and replacement as a treatment procedure allows the smooth flow of blood in the blood vessels. Prior, Jordan and Kadam (2012) discussed that taking of drugs as a medication can also end up adopted. Drugs under the prescription of a qualified physician like ACE and Aldosterone inhibitors widen the blood arteries and reduce the swelling of the heart respectfully.
Leading questions for posting at my local health center
In the process of coming up with the preventive measures of cardiovascular diseases, it requires answers to particular questions. The following are the questions and the rationale of their choice that will end up posted at my local health center.I. What is cardiovascular disease? Some people do not know the meaning of cardiovascular disease, and it is important to begin by expounding on the CVD meaning.II. What are the types of cardiovascular diseases? There several types of cardiovascular diseases that the pubic ought to know and then take particular preventive measuresIII. How can lifestyle relate to the risk factors of the cardiovascular diseases? There is a close relationship between our lifestyle and the cases of cardiovascular diseasesIV. Has anyone in your family suffered from any of the cardiovascular diseases? The family history gives information on the chances of cardiovascular diseases as some CVD end up inheritedV. How can we prevent the risk factors that increase the likelihood of an individual to suffer from CVD? It is important for the pubic to understand the risk factors that increase the probability of an individual to have CVD.
A rudimental protocol on how to disseminate the information to local community leaders
The information concerning the questions gathered in section 2 requires a rudimental protocol to end up successfully disseminated to the local community leaders. The first action is the identification of a particular group of people in the community to help in the carrying out the study. Basing on the risk factors, cohort study decisions alongside the literature reviews, a target population ought to end up chosen for data validity and reliability (Nieto, 2009). Cardiovascular diseases mainly affect the elderly and individuals under inactive physical activities alongside people suffering from hypertension and diabetes. The choice of a community with such target groups will help in answering the research questions.
After the identification of community to work with during the strategy of helping in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases proliferation, there shall be a contact with the local community leaders. The community leaders will assist in getting information about the demography of the population (Afzali, Gray & Karnon, 2013). The community leaders like chiefs, elders or spiritual leaders will end up empowered about the purpose, objectives and goals of the study. The engagement of the local community leaders leads to gaining of trust from the community. According to Lenfant (2011), after empowering the community leaders, they become the spokesperson in the course of the study. The choice of beginning to disseminate the information about the prevention of cardiovascular diseases by empowering the community leaders is because of their ability to influence the entire community.
The local community leaders will then help in the contact of the people required for the study. Coming up with local community meeting at the request and order of the local the community leaders will help in easy access of the people (Sitar-Taut & Sitar-Taut, 2010). The representation of the community members ought to come from a diverse background of age, gender and socio-economic status for a wider range of perspectives on matters concerning the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
Six steps to give to my places of work to help in preventing CVD proliferation
Six steps can end up given to my current place of employment to help in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases proliferation. The first step is the maintenance of a healthy body weight to reduce risks of cardiovascular diseases. Encouraging the clients to engage in physical activities and avoid a sedentary lifestyle prevents overweight as physical exercises burn the excessive fats (Van et al., 2011). Secondly, lowering of the cholesterol level in the body decreases the risks of developing the complication of coronary heart diseases. Lenfant (2011) argued that advising customers to reduce the level of cholesterol from the body as a way of preventing the narrowing of the blood arteries would allow the smooth flood of blood to the heart. The third step is encouraging people to avoid smoking for prevention the increase of cardiovascular diseases development. Smoking increases the chances for CVD development by 50%, because chemicals in tobacco cause harm to the blood vessels and can damage the functioning and structure of the heart (Nieto, 2009). The damage to the blood vessels increases the risk for atherosclerosis. The fourth action is encouraging people at my place of work to use more fruits and fibers while reducing the consumption of saturated fats to prevent the proliferation of cardiovascular diseases. Research by Sitar-Taut and Sitar-Taut (2010) showed that the use of vegetables, fruits and fibers reduces the risk to develop coronary heart disease.
In addition, the offering of moral support through guiding and counseling to stressed and depressed patients lowers the risk for them to develop cardiovascular disease. Stress management through meditation decreases complications in the blood flow to the heart (Prior, Jordan & Kadam, 2012). Depression, anxiety and pressure increase cardiac events leading to the development of carotid artery disease. Lastly, the step of discouraging the use of trans-fats like margarines will assist in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases proliferation. According to Lenfant (2011), trans-fatty acids have high contents of lipid profile that increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases development.
Afzali, H. H. A., Gray, J., & Karnon, J. (2013). Model performance evaluation (validation and calibration) in model-based studies of therapeutic interventions for cardiovascular diseases: A review and suggested reporting framework. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 11(2), 85-93. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com/business/docview/1465011421/9CBD93C2CBD14628PQ/ 20?accountid=45049
Lenfant, C. (2011). Can we prevent cardiovascular diseases in low- and middle-income countries? World Health Organization.Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 79(10), 980-2; discussion 983-7. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com/business/docview/229544256/9CBD93C2CBD14628PQ/1 1?accountid=45049
Miller, G. E., Moeller, J. F., & Stafford, R. S. (2006). New cardiovascular drugs: Patterns of use and association with non-drug health expenditures. Inquiry - Excellus Health Plan, 42(4),397-412. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com/business/docview/220991484/9CBD93C2CBD14628PQ/5 ?accountid=45049
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Prior, J. A., Jordan, K. P., & Kadam, U. T. (2012). Influence of chronic diseases on long-term change in physical health: A consultation-survey linkage cohort study in general practice. Quality of Life Research, 21(4), 581-91. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com/business/docview/993079607/9CBD93C2CBD14628PQ/4 ?accountid=45049
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