The Saturation Line And Steam Tables Laboratory Report Reports Examples
Type of paper: Report
Topic: Heat, Temperature, Stress, Pressure, Water, Liquid, Steam, Gaseous State
The main objective of the laboratory activity is to study the relationship between temperature and pressure of vaporization of a fluid. In a normal setting, when a liquid is poured into the container, the liquid evaporates. The molecules escape from the container with the liquid and the liquid form changes into a gaseous state. When the container with the liquid is closed, the transformation from one phase to another phase stops as soon as equilibrium is reached. Under such condition, the evaporation rate is equivalent to the condensation rate.
A measure of vaporization is termed as vapor pressure or the partial pressure rendered by the gaseous state in equilibrium with the liquid state. In addition, other gases, such as air, exist, but what is being taken into account is the pressure present in the substance involved in the liquid-gas equilibrium. Vapor pressure is expressed in units such as atmospheres, mm Hg, Pascal, kilopascals, bars, and a lot more. The greater the vapor pressure presents in a substance, the higher the compound’s concentration in the gaseous state and the higher the extent of vaporization.
II. Experimental setup
In conducting the experiment, the calorimeter valve and the drain valve are checked and ensured that they are closed. Prior to filling up the boiler, the main power is switched off. The filling point is opened and the equipment is filled using de-ionized or purified water, until it is halfway filled. The filling tube is sealed after completing the filling up process. The main power is then switched on to the console.
An initial set of readings was taken from the platinum resistance thermometer as well as the electronic pressure sensor. When the fluid was heated in the boiler, it took time for heat to travel all through the apparatus to the pipework as well as the temperature analysis. In doing so, the platinum resistance thermometer is secured so that it reaches the same temperature as the fluid prior to giving a precise reading. This period interruption between fluid accomplishing a certain temperature as well as the sensor obtaining the same value is referred to as thermal lag. As the heater is turned on, the heater control is converted to maximum. As the pressure escalated, the isolating valve is released. This enables air to be vented out of the tank and only water vapor fills the tank. The water is then heated for two minutes. The platinum resistance thermometer output is observed sensibly until the value stabilizes. This allows the heat to travel from the state of fluid to the entire apparatus, thereby reducing the effect of thermal lag.
IV. Data presentation
During the entire process, an atmospheric pressure of 101 kN/m² was used. As the thermometer recorded the temperature of the fluid in the boiler, it was observed that as the temperature rises, pressure also increases. It was also observed that as pressure becomes extreme, the isolating valve is opened. In measuring the vapor pressure, the gaseous state of the liquid had to be in equilibrium. It is important to understand that any inanimate object in the absence of a built-in heating system will eventually attain the environmental temperature or the thermal equilibrium. Additionally, the law of thermodynamics suggests that a system is in equilibrium when it is in a condition of chemical, thermal, and mechanical equilibrium. There is absence of unbalanced force in the interior of the steam or between the system and the environment. All parts of the steam are at the same temperature, and this temperature is the same with the environment’s temperature. The heat needed to increase the gas temperature relies on how the gas is kept. If the gas is held at a constant amount or volume of fluid, the heat received is transformed wholly into internal energy, thus increasing the temperature.
When heat is added to water at atmospheric pressure, the temperature increases and reaches until 212°F. When more heat is added, the temperature no longer increases. Rather, it remains constant. The heat converts the water into steam. The heat absorbed by the water in increasing the temperature until it reaches the boiling point is termed as sensible heat while the heat needed to change water to steam at boiling heat is termed as latent heat. The unit of heat commonly used is the Btu or the amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of a pound of water by 1°F at atmospheric pressure. Moreover, if heat is added into water under pressure, the boiling point is greater than the usual temperature which is 212°F. Hence, the sensible heat needed is greater. On the other hand, the greater the pressure, the greater is the boiling temperature and the greater is the heat content. If there is reduction of pressure, a certain quantity of sensible heat is discharged. The excess heat is absorbed through latent heat, thereby causing a portion of the water to blaze into steam.