Women & Gender Studies Article Reviews Article Review Sample
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According to Judith (68), although gender is such a familiar talk in our daily lives, its signs are so ambiguous that it is very hard to notice them. For instance, people refer to somebody as either a man or woman depending on their dress code. After a child is born, his gender becomes different since his parents start treating him differently based on whether he is a girl or a boy. This is extended even to the workplace where roles played by women are different from those of men. Women are often stereotyped to be secretaries while men are to be either managers or in higher roles. Society creates the difference of what makes a man and woman as it ranks them differently. In other societies such as the working class of America, gender drives everything to the extent that women even outstrip men in everything, while at home it is the women who teach children values. Paradoxically, construction of sexuality of either a woman or a man does not mean that some of their powers have to be taken away. Genders did not originate from the physical orientation but rather from what exist. For instance, to children a man means being strong in and responsible, on the contrary, they believe that being a woman means that somebody is weak. It is also obvious that there are differences between the male and female bodies in relation to their sexual organs and even hormones that each have. In this article I intend to agree with the author because being a man or a woman depends on the perceptions that society has put on gender roles. Moreover, there are roles that men play that women cannot play. In a nutshell, it is very hard for women to start playing the roles that they play in the society.
A vast majority often treats lesbians as threat to the community because they are threats to the male dominations. Traditionally, it is believed that men are supposed to be above women in everything. Apparently, women are taught not to expose their sexual desires by conceding the same to men but this is not true for lesbians since they are ideally taught first to love their sexuality before loving anything. According to them, this validates a woman's sexuality just by the act of loving. For many Chicanas, the common belief is that they must be connected to men hence riding from this can be very difficult. Some societies even view a woman as properties of men. There is also a belief that a woman must have a child before she can be a complete woman. Apparently, choosing to become a mother by other means such as artificial insemination or other ways that are not allowed by the society is frowned upon. Chicana lesbians are mothers as results of earlier liaisons with other men or as a result of divorce or artificial insemination. As a lesbian, the woman does many things simultaneously, for instance, she does not agree to compulsory heterosexual behaviors and also refuses to compete with men. He argues that heterosexual Chicanas should not remain quite while being treated badly by their heterosexual counterparts. They must continuously modify themselves so that their "familiar” can be realized and noticed within the community. Although this is true, it does not augur well with the belief that lesbians and gays can also raise children successfully. The collective liberation of people should begin with the liberation of half of its population that is the women without which they will never feel that they have been fully liberated. This essay overall talks about Chicana lesbians have to overcome the people’s mentality of disliking their bodies. Apart from this, they also have a lot of trouble with self-identity. In other words, they do not know themselves as they believe that a woman must have children while Chicana women cannot raise children (Carla, 14). I do not agree with the author’s argument since lesbianism is not treated as a natural sexuality. Moreover, for them to give birth they must pass through the normal processes of childbearing such as becoming pregnant otherwise, the child does not belong to them.
The Booty call is a movie about a tender-hearted upwardly mobile black-American with the girlfriend. Even though they like each other so much their relationship has not yet been made official because the girlfriend is not sure whether the relationship is ready for the next stage. One of the problems that they experience is that everybody would like to play safe sex hence the need to have condoms. In the movie, booty call, men differ on how women are supposed to be treated as some of them argue that women are not good at anything else apart from being sex objects. Some women insure their bodies so that they can have an assurance that nothing bad will happen to them. A good example is Jenifer Lopez. The current society is filled with men who use women for nothing else apart from sex therefore making them believe that they can do nothing apart from having sex. This emphasizes a lot on the current popular culture of the west where a black man’s values is attached to his body, sexuality, and violent attributes. To some people, this is very attractive while to others hate this some much. This article shows that blacks are viewed differently from the whites since the way they are being treated is also different. Moreover, a black man’s body has remained highly sexualized to the extent that they are viewed as sex objects and nothing else. In magazines, the focus has always been on the black man’s sexual organ and nothing else but his insatiable appetite for white women. To them, this is what differentiates black women from men. According to Loekle (430), blacks use their sexuality to exploit others which is not true. The striking feature of the movie is that the black men do not over demand sex from their black women partners; in fact, they are even patient enough to allow them to go and buy condoms. This rules out earlier arguments that depicted them as violent. I do not agree with the author since first, not all black men are violent and not all white men are non-violent, but rather this depends on how an individual was raised up in the society. Moreover, not he stereotyping that women are sexual objects is also wrong.
. This article further shows that blacks are so caring to women especially when they are about to give birth. In the article, Lindy is tolerated as a heterosexual by portraying black men as heterosexuals and loathing anything that is not that. In contrast, there are black gay men who are depicted as nonviolent and those who cannot cause any harm at all. Apparently, many blacks who are gay hide their sexuality for instance; they marry women but still continue to be in relationships with other men so that they cannot be noticed. By doing this, they do not constitute any threat to white heterosexuals meaning that black gay men can provide humor, love and poses threat all at the same time. According to Wittig (235), this is common since masculinity is associated with the use of the body and not the mind, but this is the opposite of what black males represent. According to the article, the women’s bodies or minds are products of manipulation put by the society since none is born either a woman or man. Some women also believe that the basis of women’s oppression is biological as well as historical. By admitting that there is a difference between men and women, we confirm that men and women have always existed and will still exist. In the past, to be a woman one had to be a real woman before anything else hence many guys were even oppressed. Lesbians should realize that this form of oppression was a must and whoever does not believe in it is not a woman enough. A woman who wants to become a man had to escape her past but still then it is impossible to become one. The article also explains that the only thing that sometimes shows that we have been oppressed is the mark that has been left by the oppressor. Ideally before the slavery start there was nothing like the concept of the race since people believed that everybody was equal. Currently, race is something that has been put a particular kind of human beings that is the blacks. For instance, just like women are seen as women hence they are called women the blacks are seen as blacks hence are blacks. The survival of women currently depends on escaping from the women class so that they can be viewed as humans and not be degraded. I agree with the author that being either a woman or a man is just a notion that the society has put because in reality what a man can do even a woman can also do. Moreover anybody can be a man irrespective of his sexual orientation since currently most societies have accepted men who are gay.
The article is about moral crusade started to liberate women from their cultures and their religions. For instance, this was focused on the traditional Muslim women. This article is bluntly based to the culture of religion since it is discussing the way Muslim women are being treated whether they need any form of saving at all. This was logical since after Americans had bombed Afghanistan, most women were relieved that they could now listen to radios and even treat their children something that they could not do before. This means that women were rejoicing at their liberation. The most surprising fact about the article is that Afghanistan women did not take the veils off even after being liberated. What we did not know is that it acts as form of protection that women could put on and still manage to move around without being recognized. This is because the kind of dressing that they were forced to wear was not according to their traditions hence they did not prefer them. What they wore before was called a "burgar" which was meant for good women who stayed at their homes and not the street types. Apparently, putting a head scarf was considered an act of voluntary that was done by women who were keen to maintain their social standing within the society. This is why the fight against this kind of covering by the Afghanistan women was not very in order at all. Although women wanted to do away with the veils, they were very reluctant to forgo their religion, Islam. It should be noted that the veil was not invented by the Taliban but rather it was a form of covering that women put on anytime they wanted to go out. He veil was to signify the difference between men and women and some of the roles that they were playing. In some quarters, it was called as a "portable seclusion" meaning that an individual could seclude herself but still walk around protecting parts of her body. The veiling, according to sociologists, signifies a certain community and participating in a family way of life (Lughod, 312). I agree with the author since there was no need for women to go against the government since putting on the veil is a traditionally an Islamic culture that most all Muslim women were expected to follow. To view it as form of punishment is wrong since in most Muslim communities women are not allowed to expose some of the body parts. One confusing thing about the article is why women stuck to using the veil.
According to the author, Asian-American women are expected to be submissive and ready to go along and please everybody. One of the best ways of keeping women powerless is to let them talk only about powerlessness objects. For instance, the student tells her story about how her parents refused to let her marry a pacifist because of the fear that she might also become a pacifist. According to her, it always hurts a lot to be overlooked by peers and teachers especially when she is trying to contribute. She talks about the long process that has molded her not to expect to take control of her life. In most places where Asian Americans were working the decision makers were mostly men. According to the author, she had contributed a lot to the stereotyping by assigning herself mostly to the roles that are meant for women. That is being a mother, a teacher, and wife. This is also very common in most societies since it is believed that going beyond this should never happen at all. It took her a long time to realize that opinion can change. They being all to go to school and start career the author believed that she was free since she was allowed to pursue what she wanted. What she did not understand is that those who are free make their choices and do not wait for others. She only realized this when her parents realized that she was dating pacifist. According to her, they were “appalled at choice”. They were more concerned about the possibility that she could marry a pacifist. From this article, it can be deduced that women are not free to choose on their own (Yamada, 115). This is article is very good for any Asian who is living abroad who in one way or another had been ignored for long time. The author made a mark with this article.
According to, Gore, Jeanne, and Komozi, (22), the photo of Malcolm X resting on the lap of Yuri, one of the most revered Asian activists meant a lot. For instance, it showed the caring nature of Yuri, disregarding the entire prior beliefs that were put by her communities. She disregarded her safety to be able to help another. Based on her earlier schooling, one would expect her to oppose black power but this is rarely the case since she was transformed the moment she met Malcolm X. After marrying and living in the low-income housing projects and waitressing in the rich neighborhood restaurants, she was taught that racism was in the US. Her social consciousness evolved after watching the way the media covered the unfolding civil rights movements in America. She is further famed for her endless hospitality and relentless flow of visitors at her home. Eventually, she became the central figure of most prisoners. She believed in black’s self-determination hence she was willing to do anything to support this in her work. Although some saw her living in the poor neighborhood, their perception was not changed about the way Asians were viewed. This could be seen in the way others treated her. Although others regarded her highly, she never saw herself better as anyone else but rather as the same as them in every way. She was not afraid of her political stands and acts besides, she was also keen in affirming humanity in those whom she came into contact with irrespective of the gender or race. She also believed that all humans are in one process of transformation which was still continuations. What the author is talking about is real since sometimes it is very hard to believe that an Asian can also be involved in the fight against racism that was mostly meted on blacks. The fact that that the individual is a woman and an Asian for that matter was very hard to believe.
While the 20th centuries black movement often left the masses, a new generation came in the 1930 that did not do this. This was because black women played a very crucial role in the liberation of the blacks by offering to fight for their right alongside men. At the age of 23 years, Juniata Jackson had been nominated to mobilize young people across the county for the movement. Her confidence and social competence allowed her to speak to multiple audiences often crossing the racial, gender and class line to be heard. The Jacksons mobilized votes, campaigned for their economic equity and awakened their neighbors' activism that was so crucial during their fighting. Their campaigns slogans were such that "voteless people are a hopeless people" since the blacks were not allowed to vote they remained to be perpetually hopeless in what they were doing. Her fearless and strong belief in the constitution inspired many generations who were now convinced that what they were fighting for was real and worth the fighting. She further said that instead o being given love she would rather be given constitutional rights that were more important. Above all, these women contributed a lot in the civil rights struggle that brought so much change (Gore et al., 22). The article depicts to truth since without the effort that was put by some of these women some of the black freedoms that were realized could not have taken place. Some of them fought so hard even more than men.
During the 1960s, Florence was one of the best known black feminists who fought for the black and women's rights. She is among the few black women who were involved in female feminist movements that were prominent during that time. The erasure of her place in history showed how the country still does not recognize the role that black women played in these movements. She contributed a lot to the politics of feminism that captured how black women were being treated. She argued that she was better placed to understand black discrimination against the black due to the discrimination that she witnessed among black people unlike before. Black power movement was so much connected to the white feminist movement that it was hard to separate them. For instance, Florence was both a black feminism and black nationalist who build alliances with other people who were fighting for the rights of the blacks. Although she criticized black power, she continued to work with them in all ways often making sure that she continued to contribute. This also made many black power advocates to criticize the predominant white women movement. They accused them of merely copying their counterparts without doing much to help the black. This year was a watershed period between the women movement and the black powers. Florence was born in1916 and traveled to New York, after arriving in New York, she thought that she would benefit from war opportunities that he blacks had. Although she believed that oppression was connected, her primary language was racism since she believed that it did not matter which oppression was lethal because they all hurt. I agreed with the author’s opinion since these women played a vital role in the fight against racism and discrimination against women. Although they were accused of copying their white counterparts, the results of their fight could be seen.
This article is a recollection of a witness’s account of his mother's humiliation in slavery. It shows the permanent trauma that the witnesses underwent for the rest of life. According to the article, horror and trauma can be found anywhere, for instance, in the balcony where Abraham Lincoln was shot dead as well as the motorcade where JF Kennedy was shot. Barbara and other scholars have in the past published works that highlight how the blacks were treated during the fight for their rights. Black women apparently wielded a lot of power but still experienced marginalization in their movements. Although black women were initially hopeful that the political space will open up so that they could participate more when this did not happen they decided to create their organizations where they could participate. During the 1970 black women were concerned with the stereotypes arguments based on their sexuality that was just so much widespread. This was because even the black women faced a lot of oppression emanating from the black men who never believed that women need to be given any space. Due to a lot of suffering that they have undergone, black women assumed that they should always hope for themselves. Some black women experienced trauma that could be clearly seen among the black congress ladies who were fighters. This was seen in the life of Shirley and Barbara Jordan. For instance, the trauma of losing two campaigns made Jordan come up with an inside political strategy. This strategy made her win subsequent elections and earned her a lot of respect. This later earned her many accolades among her peers. In fact, she later on announced that she was very aggressive since without which you cannot be successful in politics (Phillis, 56). I agree with the author. In the past, there was a lot of oppression that and humiliation that was directed towards women. This implies that women had to be very aggressive to achieve much in both politics and life. This is because of how society has labeled them.
Carla, 1. "Chicana Lesbians, Fear and Loathing in Chicano Community." Matrices of Privileges and Oppression 5.21 13-19: 1983. Print.
Gore, Dayo F, Jeanne Theoharis, and Komozi Woodard. Want to Start a Revolution?: Radical Women in the Black Freedom Struggle. New York: New York UP, 2009. Print.
Gore, Dayo F, Jeanne Theoharis, and Komozi Woodard. Want to Start a Revolution?: Radical Women in the Black Freedom Struggle. New York: New York UP, 2009. Print.
Judith Lorber, "Night to His Day: The Social Construction of Gender” Paradoxes of Shifting gender 68-79. 2000. Print.
Loekle, Simon. "Booty Call!" James Joyce Quarterly 12.23 (2008): 429-567. Print.
Lughod, L. "Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving? Anthropological Reflections On Cultural Relativism and Its Others." Global Politics and State 78.7 (2002): 300-456. Print.
Phillis, L. "Trauma and the African American Woman." Journal of Research for African Women 1.1 (2011): 1-66. Print.
Sherrie, R. "Women Liberatio or Black Liberation You are Fighting the Same Enemy." Journal of Afro-American Studies 2.4 (2000): 45-67. Print.
Wittig, M. J. "One is Not Born a Woman." Journal of Gender Studies 15.2 (1992): 234-249. Print.
Yamada, M. "Invisibility of Unnatural Disaster. Reflections of an Asian American Woman."Journal of Communications 13.7 (2000): 113-134. Print.
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