A Critical Evaluation Of ‘a Global Link Between National Diversity Policies’ Journal Article Essays Examples
Over the years, managing diversity in an organisation has been challenging many employers and administrators. Understandably, leveraging differences in ethnicity, gender, religion, race, age and sexual orientation can be an advantage to the organisation. This paper bravely and critically analyzes Geraldine &Franklin’ s journal article, ‘A global link between national diversity policies’ in attempt to understand the benefits of proper global diversity management. It deeply examines theoretical frameworks employed in this journal and how critical they are in global diversity understanding. In addition, it attacks research approaches used by the authors in the process of collecting data and how relevant they are in human resource management (Uhlenwinkel, 2010). In addition, this paper discusses the implications of this journal article to managers working in multinational organisations. Towards the end, this piece puts together general recommendations based on the experience gained from Geraldine& Franklin’s article.
A brief description
The paper, ‘A global link between national diversity policies’, authored by Geraldine and Franklin reflects on the understanding of global diversity by keenly looking at conditions that favour the migration of labour force from developing countries, specifically Nigeria, to developed nations like US and UK. This journal article brings out the interrelationship existing between the macro policies in home country and that of the destination country (Ehiri, 2009). By doing so, the authors divided the paper into sections; revisiting theories of the triadic relationship and migration, diversity management (Nigeria), why Nigerian physicians migrate, and the necessity of professional networks. The paper utilizes multi-disciplinary and interconnected approach to the understanding and comprehending global diversity.
In the understanding and analysing global diversity, the authors used different theoretical frameworks. It is through these theories they gathered and composed their paper. Firstly, they revisited the past theories that deal with triadic relationships and migration. Here, the author analysed different theories that try to explain global diversity management (Wiseman, 2009). One of these theories is Micro theories which specifically focused on individual reasons for migrating. Micro theories observe how an individual especially educated person compares costs or salaries in different countries. Next, Macro theories which majorly deal with policies, working conditions, salaries, social environment and health care management can cause human resource to migrate. In general, macro theories focus on economic and social environment of their country. Secondly, they collected date by critically analyzing both national and international policy documents. In this respect, they weighed the impacts imposed policies in the migration of educated people, specifically Nigerian doctors. Finally, they held interviews with health networks, Nigerian doctors and those who attended network meetings.
In connection to the theoretical frameworks as used by the authors, it is clear; they have used correct theories to attack the concept of global understanding. To be specific, the paper analyzes three countries, Nigeria, UK and US; by analysing policies in both meso and destination countries is a good way to understand why Nigerian doctors decide to migrate to developed countries. Micro policies and general laws in a country might change the working conditions completely and, therefore, foster migration of labour (Healey, & Oikelome, 2010). Researchers have clearly and deeply noted that over 70% of educated people decide to leave their countries in search of green pastures. In real sense, few workers would like to leave their countries simply because they love destination countries. In addition to policies, they first analyze the current situation in Nigeria especially ethnicity issues. Though policies were put in place over the last ten years, it is understood that Nigeria still needs to eradicate the issues of ethnicity and racism. Studies advocate that polices shape the working environment, a country can retain her educated people by implementing favourable policies that enable educated people to secure good salaries and allowances, work under favourable environment and, above all, be recognized.
Secondly, the authors revisited both micro and macro theories in relation to migrations. Here, they look at career structures especially in the medical industry. Macro and micro theories analyze the individual factors and external factors (push factors) which make Nigerian physicians migrate to developed states. Researchers, in 2008, discovered that push factors are powerful tools for individuals when deciding whether to leave his country or not. In Nigeria, cases of unemployment have been witnessed (Uhlenwinkel, 2010). It automatically forces people to look for alternatives in other countries. Furthermore, the understanding of global diversity solely require an individual to analyze triadic relationship between countries. This means the comparison of push factors between the three countries could give a better of global diversity.
Despite that the theories utilized by the authors were suitable for the understanding of Nigeria’ current scenario, they overlooked holistic model that as been in and is used for global diversity management. Holistic or inclusive approach focuses on all aspects that might contribute to migration of Nigerian physicians. For instance, paper seem to ignore individual factors such as having desires to work in prestigious countries, individual dislikes and even, family issues might be the cause. Inclusive goes beyond the boundaries built by Franklin & Geraldine. It involves matters dealing with workforce diversity, incentives and awards in the destination country, management diversity and social aspects (Wiseman, 2009). Past researches utilize such methods and look at global diversity understanding from the holistic perspective. It does not only attack the push factors but also analyzes the societal expectations in Africa.
Research design and methods
In their research design, they used three countries; Nigeria, UK and US. As per Geraldine and Franklin, cases of migration of Nigerian physicians to developed countries have significantly increased. This remains why they decided to choose the three countries. While United States and UK represent developed countries, Nigeria stands in for developing countries. The purpose of research was to understand how macro policies cause the migration of personnel specifically in Nigeria. They targeted the ethnic tensions has another cause of a huge migration of physicians to developed countries (Uhlenwinkel, 2010).
Geraldine and Franklin used interview as their method of collecting and arranging raw data. Participants were doctors, health practitioners, health network members who attended health meetings (Healey, & Oikelome, 2010). The collected data was used to analyze the reasons why doctors leave Nigeria to US to work. Those who participated in this interview are individual doctors who attended health network conference. In part, using interview method is appropriate to some extent but sometimes it fails to bring out the real picture.
Advantages of interview method used by Geraldine and Franklin
Conducting interviews is the best method of investigating issues in deep. Researchers in unity agree that individual’s views and responses make a large content of useful researches. In the journal, it is through the interviewing of doctors that led them to understand the ethnic tensions in Nigeria. In addition, individual attitudes and perceptions are fully channelled out through the interviews. Interviewees get to respond depending on how they feel and think. Over the years, in the field of Human Resource Management, interviews have been found to increase effective in developing a strategic plan, locating resources and making informed decisions (Ehiri, 2009). Therefore, Franklin and Geraldine sampled information using interviews and reviewing of macro policies with the aim of making accurate conclusions. Interviews not only remove the barriers of impersonal data but also create a platform for statistical explanation (Wiseman, 2009). Outwardly, the authors selected doctors in their interview with the aim of finding the personal views regarding migration of personnel.
Limitation of this approach
Since interviews involve the interaction between researchers and respondents, there is likelihood to collect inaccurate data. Some doctors might give wrong responses intentionally. For instance, Nigerian physician would not want to expose his country to the outside world, he is likely to give wrong information. Secondly, not all individuals are willing to expose their personal reasons to people (Healey, & Oikelome, 2010). They also used policies from different countries; they might have interpreted the established policies in the wrong way. This research could land on accurate result if they could have incorporated experts from three countries who will interpret the macro polices of a country.
Conclusions and findings of the research
In their research, Franklin and Geraldine found that there are several reasons which make Nigerian doctors move to other countries. Firstly, they refuse to work in second-class health places where there are poor conditions. In addition, wage differences are a big reason for relocation. In sub-Saharan region, wages are relatively low when compared to first-world countries. They, therefore, need to move to where there is better management of health systems, quality education, and good environment and where salaries are high. Secondly, discrimination in Nigerian health sector is another cause. Health system in Nigeria is structured in a way that it favours discrimination. They found that Health sector is controlled by Federal Ministry, and only 12% of qualified doctors are working for public hospitals. This argument finds its roots in the fact that the past researches on Nigerian doctors in Diasporas agree.
The idea of putting ethnicity in Nigeria in front as the major reason for relocation is blurred. Researchers strongly agree that African countries including Nigeria try to embrace equality between the ethnic groups. Professionals like doctors are highly respected irrespective of where they hail from. Seemingly, ethnicity might not sound a good reason for migrating (Healey, & Oikelome, 2010). The idea is argued and channelled from a personal point of view. Undeniably, high unemployment levels, poor working conditions, desire to earn huge salaries and to work in a prestigious country might be the best reasons for Nigerians to move to US or UK.
Implications for individuals working under cross-cultural management
Individuals working under cross-cultural management are more likely to be discriminated and isolated. Cross-cultural management group need to rethink the policies such that they are fair to each member. Despite high salaries, better working conditions and quality facilities in the destination country, individuals are vulnerable to racism and discrimination (Uhlenwinkel, 2010). So far, discrimination and racism has made cross-cultural employment difficult and unattractive to many educated people. Each state has stipulated laws governing and protecting international workers. Non-governmental organisations, in addition, have put efforts towards the achievement of equality in the workplace and public sectors. Ironically, discrimination and prejudice dominate in many sectors including health sectors. Therefore, there is need to manage global diversity effectively. For organisations to enjoy quality services from foreign workers like doctors, they should always reduce racism and discrimination.
It noted that individuals finally develop a negative picture of the foreign country they are serving. Many finally decide to relocate back to their home country. However, due to huge salaries and working conditions, many doctors decide to settle and live in the developed country. Finally, Franklin and Geraldine have provided clear reasons why many Africans migrants to developed countries for work. Conversely, they have shown what succumb them and how they feel being in Diaspora.
My personal experience working with a multicultural group
For instance, poor communication incidences are witnessed in many multinational teams. Companies that employ workers from different countries face these challenges because there is the language barrier. Like now, If am an African and I have been employed to work in American Hospitals where they use native langue, English; it will be a challenge especially when handling patients. Secondly, many US patients will prefer to be attended by the white. In this case, it lowers one's self-efficacy and self-esteem. Nonetheless, fellow workers isolate themselves, and they are not willing to share with people of a different race.
I also understand that strategies applied when managing a team of workers who come from the surrounding are quite different from those of multicultural group management. Ironically, many managers try to apply the same approaches to their leadership and end up failing (Wiseman, 2009). Therefore, new managerial skills that go in line with cross-cultural teams should be practised. Diversity in culture can be achieved by creating uniform policies which apply equally to all members.
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