Approach To Care – Cancer Essay Samples
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The main theme of this paper is ‘Cancer’. The paper represents the analysis of cancer, its staging, complications, approaches and recommendation to diminish its physical effects. The objective of this analysis is to highlight the diagnosis and staging of cancer which determines lab tests, ultrasound, and biopsy treatment. Moreover, complications of cancer such as nausea, vomiting, dyspnea, fatigue are also analyzed with comprehensive treatment. Likewise, detailed recommendations are also provided that focus on physiological and psychological side effects of care. (Macloed et al, 2009)
Cancer patients can endure peacefully by fresh mindsets towards a cure, by incarnate quality-life and by proper medication with physical exercise. This paper firstly indicates detailed analysis of diagnosis and staging of cancer; secondly cancer complications are provided and finally physiological and psychological side effects of cancer care are discussed in a detailed manner.
Diagnosis of Cancer
Cancer can be analyzed by various tests and scanning. Firstly, patient’s medical history, family medical details get observed and studied. Then, physical check-ups in terms of laboratory tests, scanning, ultrasound, therapies, and biopsy are conducted.
Higher and a lower standard of certain bacteria can be the cause of cancer in our body. Therefore, blood test and urine test are taken. These tests measure the level of bacteria. In other words, the doctor diagnoses diseases with respect to these test reports. Moreover, cancer could be diagnosed by CT scanning in which there is an X-ray machine associate with a high-tech computer. This machine undertakes comprehensive photographs of complete organs inside the body. (National Cancer Institute, 1971)
The ultrasound technique is mostly used to detect a tumor. This machine creates sound waves. These waves reflect tissues and create resonance in the body and these resonances are read by computer and image is created of inside organs and the image is known as ‘sonogram’.
Additionally, there are other high-tech scanning measures called MRI and PET. ‘Magnetic Resonance Imaging’ shortly refers as MRI is a scanning in which there is a heavy magnet associate with a computer. Detailed images of tissues are appeared on a computer by MRI scan. Finally, ‘Positron Emission Tomography’ shortly refers as PET scanning, which scans the working of tissues inside the body. Injection with respect to tracer is received, and then the device creates 3d images which show the places of tracers collected among the organs.
Likewise, ‘Biopsy’ is also another mean to detect cancer in patients.A biopsy is the removal of a sample of soft tissue from a body is called as biopsy. After this, that tissue sample is observed with the help of high-tech microscopes. Removing a sample tissue from a body could be done in several ways such as pointed needle can be used to eradicate tissues or nerves. Through endoscopy where an endoscope is a thin, light tube which is usually inserted through the mouth. With this instrument, the doctor observes inside the body and removes tissues from other special tools. In addition, a biopsy can also be done by surgery. There are two types of surgical biopsy; excisional and incisional. Excisional biopsy is when the doctor eradicates the complete tumor and some parts around that tumor also get detached. While in incisional surgery; a small part of tumor gets isolated by the surgeon.
Staging of Cancer
Caner undertakes stages, and these stages show how large are patients’ tumor or cancer and to which extent the cancer is present in the body. Proper diagnose is helpful to cure the tumor. A laboratory test, ultrasounds, biopsy play a key role in investing the disease stage. Thus, the patient should know their stage of cancer so that they acquire cure medications and treatments as soon as possible. (National Cancer Institute, 1971)
Furthermore, knowing cancer staging is essential because it estimates patients’ prognosis, medical hearings can be done precisely which benefits in patient’s early recovery, also aid medical researchers to gather and interchange information regarding patient’s stage, health, and recovery. As medical science is growing rapidly, so staging statistics could benefit the society. (National Cancer Institute, 1971)
When cancer or tumor firstly diagnose, they are present in stages. The classification of staging before any treatment is referred as ‘clinical trial’. Further, staging can be determined by surgical biopsy through which level of cancer known well. This is called ‘pathological phase’. Additionally, cancer bacteria and cells rise and spread hysterically and do not decease easily. Because of these spreading, these cells make corpus of tissues which is called ‘tumor’. Likewise, the growth of the tumor is damaging as it attack nearer muscles and organs.
According to studies, there occurs various Cancer staging system. Some stage cover only specific type, and some cover several natures of cancer. Location of tumor, type of cell (for instance; squamous cell carcinoma), size of tumor i.e. to which amount the cancer extends to near lymph nodules or different organs and grade of tumor i.e. the abnormality of cell, how large it is and the extent to which it grows in body is contained within most staging systems. (National Cancer Institute, 1971)
According to National Cancer Institute, TNM system is commonly and extensively used in staging process. Where T = primary tumor, N = Lymph nodes and M = metastasis.
Therefore, TNM system is basically a system which indicates the size of primary tumor ‘T’, the extent to which it attacks on nearer lymph nodes ‘N’ and the existence of metastasis ‘M’. Metastases are the secondary cancer cells that are shaped in the body due to the spread of tumors in other organs.
Complications of Cancer
Cancer impediments tend to be throbbing and disastrous for patients. Therefore, there are respective medical remedies and therapies to deal with these complications. There are various common weakness such as nausea, fatigue, depression, physical and emotional pain, etc. These medications would help patients enhancing quality in their life and new endurance. (National Cancer Institute, 1971)
Macleod et al. (2009) stated complications of cancer in the book ‘The Palliative Care Handbook’. Therefore, three complications i.e. Nausea, Fatigue, and Dyspnea provided with treatment measures are specified below:
Nausea and Vomit Feeling
Patients suffering from cancer has an occurrence of nausea about 25 to 30 percent. However, patients suffering in last stage of cancer feels it about 75 percent. Likewise, Vomiting sensation occurs 25 percent of cancer patients. In the first week, patient deal with 30 percent nausea induced with an opioid, vomit, and retches. (Cancer Treatment Centers of America, 1988)
Treatment: Higher Centre stimulation, Vomit Centre stimulation, Chemoreceptor Trigger stimulation are the treatments.
Fatigue is the complication in which patient feels low capacity to work, exhaustive feelings and sense of tiredness. Moreover, there is the absence of powerful energy and less interest in daily activities; patient tends to sleep more in the daytime and feel drowsy. Cancer patients face changes in their skeletal muscle which is stimulated by tumor necrosis. The nutritional level gets lowers, patient feel dehydration, and infection and becomes anemic. (Mcloed et al., 2009)
Treatment: Evaluation of the level of hydration, hemoglobin, nutrition and metabolic rate to provide quick medication. Exercises are must at this stage as it helps in relaxing, visualizing, lower down depression and active psycho stimulants. Likewise, focusing on better quality-life is effective for patients.
In Dyspnea, the patient faces difficulty and pain in breathing. There is factor of asthma, paining sensations, bronchitis aching, negative and restless emotions and deficient energy. In addition, the lung volume get decreased, infection and pneumothorax while lung rigidity get increased with fibrosis, lymphangitis, etc. Tumor heavily effects the circulation of the pulmonary gland and chest walls get penetrated.
Treatment: Antibiotics, nebulizers, diuretics, chemotherapies, remedial exercises, radiotherapy are the effective treatments whereas psychosocial techniques such as demonstration of breathing patterns also support patients. On the other hand, artistic and musical cures are successful medium to cope up factors of breathing difficulty. (Cancer Treatment Centers of America, 1988)
Recommendations addressing Physiological and Psychological Side effects of Cancer Care
Cancer disease and its treatment effect patients’ physical wellbeing and daily activities. Patient suffering from cancer experience fluctuations in body function, postures, in breathing and reproductive systems as well.
According to the recommendations of Cancer treatment centers of America, the patient must be active and take routine checkups from a doctor. Participate in creative activities. Prepare short and long term objectives for the future. Walking and light exercise is must. Get- together with family and friends creates a healthy atmosphere for cancer patients and give them a sense of support. Likewise, healthy and balanced diet plays a key role in boosting patients’ stamina and improves well-being. Maintaining proper sleeping could enhance the quality of life. However, being inactive can cause a loss in functioning, sense of depression and tiredness all day. (Cancer Treatment Centers of America, 1988)
On the other hand, patients fighting with cancer illness must suffer psychological stress. On coping stage or starting stage, there is emotional distress which is difficult to handle by the patient. Cancer patients undergo a range of emotional distress such as the emotion of shock, distrust, fear and sense of insecurity, anxiousness, sadness and depression, anger, frustration, isolated feelings, weakness, and vulnerability.
Therefore, emotional care is an essential part of cancer care. Psychological comfort makes patient relaxed and enhances their tendency to cope up with distress during cancer. Counseling from spiritual, professional, relaxation techniques, the fresh mindset towards a cure, laughter psychotherapy, and stress management seminars play a vital role in augmenting psychological health of cancer patients.
Patient fighting with cancer is in real trauma. However, proper collaboration with a specialist, diagnosing at the very first stage and starting appropriate treatment could enhance the momentum of life. Nausea, vomiting, fatigue, weakness are the common complication of cancer, thus if a person feels any of this symptom repeatedly should consult a professional specialist. Psychological wellbeing, active participation in exercises, family gatherings, laughter therapies, healthy diet and proper sound sleep creates a sense of enthusiasm, relaxation among cancer patients and also aid to endure the quality of life.
Cancer Treatment Centers of America. (1988). Physical changes / muscle wasting. Retrieved March 30, 2015, from http://www.cancercenter.com/community/managing-side-effects/physical-changes/
Cancer Treatment Centers of America. (1988). Emotional / psychological. Retrieved March 30, 2015, from http://www.cancercenter.com/community/managing-side-effects/emotional-psychological/
Macloed, R. Vella-Brincat, J. Macleod, S. (2009). The Palliative Care Handbook. Nurse Maude Association, Christchurch.
National Cancer Institute. (1971). Diagnosis. Retrieved March 30, 2015, from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/diagnosis-staging/diagnosis
National Cancer Institute. (1971). Cancer Staging. Retrieved March 30, 2015, from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/diagnosis-staging/staging/staging-fact-sheet
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