Definition Of Intelligence Essays Examples
Intelligence Testing Article Analysis
Intelligence Testing Article Analysis
Intelligence is a concept that is quite broad. Some researchers look at intelligence as a single general ability. Other researchers take intelligence to encompass a wide range of skills, aptitudes and talents. Several theories of intelligence have evolved in the course of the last 100 years (Hersen, 2004).
Theories of Intelligence
Charles Spearman Theory of General Intelligence
This theory was developed by use of numerous aptitude tests in which the test takers scored the same score irrespective of the test.People that performed well on one cognitive test more often performed well on other tests. On the other hand, those that performed poorly still did so in other general cognitive tests. With this, he concluded that a person’s intelligence is a general cognitive ability that is measurable and can be numerically expressed (Soraci, 1998).
Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Gardner stipulated that the numerical expression of human intelligence is not capable of depicting a person’s abilities. He put forward a theory that is based on abilities and skills. The theory describes eight distinct intelligences that are based on abilities and skills that are usually valued within the different cultures( Wolman, 1985 ).These intelligences include visual-spatial intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, verbal-linguistic intelligence, musical intelligence, naturalistic intelligence among others (Hersen,2004).
Methods of measuring intellectual functioning.
The following are some of the tests administered to the learners:
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC –IV)
Is a popular individual test testing the intellectual ability of children commonly used in school and clinical setups with children? Just like other individually administered intelligence tests the WISC-IV is administered by a professional who poses extensive training in psychological assessments. The test takes between two to three hours to administer and score. The score contains various subsets key of them being: Arithmetic in which the students are presented with a set of arithmetic questions that they are to solve mentally, this is done without giving the children materials such as pen and paper to work out the problems. This test involves mental manipulation, auditory memory, numerical reasoning ability and concentration (Wolman, 1985). Comprehension in which the student responds to a series of questions that are presented to the student orally. These questions involve day to day problems and social situations. It measures a child’s ability to comprehend the reason and apply practical information. Other sub-tests in this test include block design, cancelation, coding, digital span, picture concepts, and vocabularies among others.
Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III)
This test is based on the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of cognitive ability. This test provides a more comprehensive model suitable for assessing a broader range of the child’s cognitive abilities. It is favored by many professionals in the psychology field as it measures a broader range of the learner’s ability (Soraci, 1998).
Difference between the concept of intelligence and academic achievement
Academic achievement refers to a child’s understanding of curriculum content domain. Achievement tests are hence designed to assess the child’s skills and knowledge in the content domain in which the child has already received instruction within a predetermined time frame (Soraci, 1998 ). Intelligence on the other hand encompasses cognitive skill, knowledge that the child has accumulated as a result of the experiences and skills that they have acquired and how they apply these attributes to their day to day problem solving process (Wolman, 1985 ).It also includes inborn abilities that the child has. Instruments for measuring academic achievement and intelligence are different. While academic achievement tests are limited to specified programs of instruction, intelligence tests on the other hand tend to reflect a cumulative impact of the life experiences as a whole putting into account the underlying ability of the learner to use information.
Hersen, M. (2004). Comprehensive handbook of psychological assessment. Hoboken, N.J: J. Wiley.
Soraci, S. (1998). Perspectives on fundamental processes in intellectual functioning: 1. Stamford, Conn: Ablex.
Wolman, B. B. (1985). Handbook of Intelligence: Theories, measurements, and applications. New York: Wiley.