Example Of Article Review On Criminal Review
Special Considerations Classifications of Prisoners Present to Correctional Administrators
The full range of the prison population has compelled correctional administrators to question their methods of working. Business is no longer as usual for correctional centers in the face of larger and more demanding offender population. The current inmate population exists in surroundings where personal matters such as mental as well as physical health problems are taken into account. Classification places offenders in one among several levels of custody, such as minimum, maximum, medium, and close, to align prisoner needs with correctional resources. The intention is to separate among offenders who pose distinct security threats and have different management problems. Offenders are usually evaluated at a classification center based on their criminal history, crime, behavioral problems, health and programming needs, and escape risk (Austin, 2003). Women and children are classified in different facilities from adult males. After the evaluation by correctional officers, offenders are placed in prisons that the correctional personnel believe are suitable depending on the needs of security, availability of space, and the needs of offenders. Offenders have no control over which prison they are sent to (Austin, 2003).
Offenders experience three kinds of classifications, external, internal, and reclassification. The external classification is the initial classification and it places prisoners at a center classified at the custody level where prisoners are evaluated based on their health issues, mental problems prior criminal history, and record, and other dysfunctions (Carlson & Garrett, 2008). When prisoners enter the correctional facility, they go through internal classification to determine cell and unit assignments as well as programs to match their dangers and needs with the treatment and security features of the programs and group. After a period, prisoners undergo reclassification to update and revise the existing levels of classification. At reclassification stage, more emphasis is placed on the conduct of the offender at the time of incarceration. At the community level, the classification comprises the identification and selection of supervision strategies based on the evaluation of dangers and needs of inmates (Austin, 2003).
Methadone maintenance treatment controversies
Methadone maintenance treatment involves a synthetic agent that works by sticking to brain receptors locations influenced heroin and other opiates. It blocks the euphoric and sedating impacts of drugs; does not lead to euphoria, which enables a person to work and regularly participate in society; and relieves the craving for opiates. Despite its long history of experience and widespread acceptance by specialists in addiction and health institutions, Methadone treatment has been controversial in many countries (Carlson & Garrett, 2008). Opponents have cited the belief that the treatment just substitutes one addiction from another, and thus reaching a drug-free nation is the only valid treatment goal. In addition, misunderstandings regarding the nature of drug dependence are some of the reasons why methadone treatment has been met with restricted acceptance by the society, the public and health care providers. Those who oppose the expansion of methadone programs express concerns that such programs may be a magnet for crime and dealing in drugs. Moreover, they argue that patients may divert methadone by selling it to support their income, sell, or purchase it to assist friends in withdrawal. Because of this, methadone use in the treatment of addiction is under heavy regulation and strict control in many countries (Doweiko, 2009). For instance, until now methadone treatment has been on the delivery only through clinics that are specially licensed. Such controls and regulations mean that methadone programs have restricted flexibility and ability to respond to the needs of patients in critical areas such as length of treatment and dose. Furthermore, these regulations have restricted the number of health care professionals available to treat heroin addiction as well as the settings and locations where treatment may take place.
Austin, J. (2003). Findings in prison classification and risk assessment. Washington, DC: National Institute of Corrections.
Carlson, P. M., & Garrett, J. S. (2008). Prison and jail administration: Practice and theory. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Pub.
Doweiko, H. E. (2009). Concepts of chemical dependency. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.