Example Of Cancer Pain Management Essay
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The advancement of technology has given birth to the treatment of different diseases. When the advancement of biology started at the European Continent it also gives way to the discovery of one of the most deadly disease the human civilization has encountered. And that is cancer.
Cancer is the abnormal growth of malignant cells that disrupts the normal functions of a tissue. Other names for cancer cells are malignant tumors. Tumors on the other hand are lumps of abnormal cell that can be invasive or just dormant (benign). Moreover, the spreading of cancer cells is not limited to the affected organ but as well as can spread to the neighboring tissues. The complication of cancer cells to the other parts of the body could lead to death. Common symptoms of cancer are unexpected weight loss, chronic pain and excessive blood coughing and among others. There are many different cancer cells discovered and over 100 tissues of the human body could be affected. Breast, Lung, Bone, Colon and Cervical Cancer are the common cancers known to public. However, it is not exclusive to those body parts or tissues. All tissues in the human body are prone to be affected by cancer cells.
There are many factors that could lead to cancer. It includes poor diet and lifestyle, tobacco usage, excessive alcohol drinking, hepatitis and genetics. As of today there are screening tests made to determine the presence of possible cancer cells that would develop later in the lifespan of an individual (Cancer Org, 2013).
The main objective of this paper is to discuss the management of pain a cancer patient could experience. Academic Journals are used as reference on this context. Moreover, the focus of nursing practices in UK and Ireland are highly discussed.
Managing Pain of a Cancer Patient:
There are many types of cancer patient that needs care or even palliative care. Patients that are undergoing chemotherapy for an instance need to be attended more cautiously. However, as a general consensus cancer patients are prone to experience tremendous amount of pain.
According to the Cancer Research UK (2014), about 331, 487 individuals are affected by cancer. Breast, lung, prostate and bowel cancer makes for over 50% of the cases of cancer in UK. Scientific methods could also lessen the growth of cancer cells but will also contribute to the pain experienced by the patient.
Chemotherapy as the common method of cancer treatment would kill the abnormal cells but would not exclude the normal cells of the body. This would eventually weaken the immune system of the affected individual and additional pain may be experienced. It is the same with the general cancer surgery and radiotherapies. It would kill the affected tissue but would also kill neighboring normal cells. When these treatments are combined with pharmacological methods of pain management, this would give optimization the pain felt by the individual. Evidently, it would also best to consider that this would not eliminate the total feeling of pain from the cancer patient (The British Pain, pp. 25-45). Nursing cares from home-based facilities would decrease the physiological distress the patient may experience through active interaction and encouragement. According to a study by Allison Worth et. al. (2006), there is a variation of response regarding out of hours palliative care. On the said journal, patients could have unhappy to extremely satisfied palliative care from out-of-hours nurse practitioners. This could be made by several factors such as psychological and societal support specifically family issues.
While the patient is in the medical institution administered with surgery or chemotherapy, opioids remain the best pain management tablet. However, there are side effects to the usage of this drug. Dependency and tolerance could lead to ineffectiveness of the drug or severe longing for the drug (similar to drug addiction). Complex cancer pains can be given with different dosage of opioids. IV is the usual method of administering opioids. General anesthesia was also administered during general cancer surgery (Raphael et. al., pp. 875-900).
Psychosocial factors must also be assessed for major studies have suggested that fear, anxieties could cause the lack of sleep and eventually increasing the pain felt by the cancer patient. The assessment of this factor shall include the psychological state of the patient with respect to immediate relatives (Miaskowski et. al, 2005). The initial understanding of the patient’s anxieties and addressing them through psychiatric or even familial support can decrease the pain the patient may feel.
Physical Therapies were also used to ease the pain of cancer patients. Physiotherapists are known to be the personnel to address this problem. However, the physiotherapist is advised that the patient or the attending physician must be noted before any therapeutic exercise (NICE, 2004). Collectively the cancer pain management with the use of physical therapy is called therapeutic exercise.
Home Care for Cancer patients could also increase their resistance to pain. Some cancer patients want to stay at home in order for them to feel the support of their family even greater. The familiar atmosphere gives them a sense of peace and calmness that would essentially ease the pain they might felt. Homecare agencies provide services to these patients. They usually send medical facilities along with a registered nurse. The doctor is also contacted beforehand for the medications. Physical therapists were also hired depending on case to case basis (NCI, 2009).
According to a study by Thompson et. al (2007), prostate cancer is the second main cause of death among men in the UK. The main objective of the study was to assess the palliative care of prostate cancer patients and how the cancer pain was managed. The methods of administering vitamin D levels for patient in order to improve the cancer’s medical situation are a way for deliberating the patient’s pain. However, the complications held with prostate cancer makes the patient physically and psychologically distressed. Communication to relatives and end-life care were imposed to patients with terminal prostate cancer. Moreover, the study has suggested that the general principles of urology with respect to prostate cancer among men must be addressed with proper palliative care and pain management.
Child Cancer Patient Pain Management:
Children diagnosed with cancer undergo the same treatment with adults. However, the administration of drugs differs for them. Opioids are still the mainstay analgesic for children but the dosage varies depending on the age of the child. Opioids are administered in lower levels for children (Schetcher, pp. 7-11). This is to alleviate the pain felt by the child. Overdose can happen to those children if not monitored well.
Children understood pain at an early age. It could be physical or emotional. This can be seen through their interaction with playmates and sustain some scratches or when they feel hurt about their parents (emotional). Pain is any unpleasant thing that could happen externally or internally for a child (IASP, 2009). Management of the child’s physical attributes (with cancer) must be assessed first before administering palliative care. Parental guidance and support is highly needed for children to feel at ease with their situation. Sedatives were used in a minor level to relax children when pain attacks them. Moreover, the physical therapy of these cancer patients is far different from adults. For an instance, if the child is diagnosed with brain tumor the situation is delicate. Physical Therapist would be more sensitive of the child’s reaction to head movements (WHO, 1998).
Non-pharmacological treatments for children also exist such as physical therapies and music therapy to soothe the pain felt by children. This is recommended for them most especially if the cancer of the children is treatable. Adverse effects of analgesics are degradation of bone cells (IASP, 2009).
Palliative care among cancer patients is very needed. This is to improve the quality of life the patient will be experiencing. Moreover, the healthcare agencies are still researching new ways of administering pain management that are not invasive. There are still new researches undergoing this field of health. However, the immediate concerned citizen of pain management is the relatives of the patient. Proper communication within the household or within the medical institution is highly recommended. Special Treatments to patients that are coping with surgery must also be addressed. Proper Nursing Practitioner care shall be administered in accordance with the doctor’s advice.
Moreover it is also evident that some patients are not cooperating in pain management. According to by Ward et. al (1993) the reluctance of patient in reporting signs of pain makes it difficult for therapist to help them in pain management. Thus, further studies on this matter must be imposed. Psychological aspects of the patient must be assessed on the highest level to attain cooperation. Additionally, the family or the immediate relatives or friends shall help the process of pain management. Undeniably, the help of empathy from relatives or friends gives a metaphysical strength to cancer patients. It may not chemically reduce the pain, but the stress on the mental health of the patient will be lessened. With respect to children that have cancer, proper NP care and cooperation must also be addressed.
Regardless of social status cancer patients must be treated well in medical communities. Their pain is more than enough and to add more is pitiful. Moreover, the concern of cost-effective palliative care is also evident. Further evidence-based studies must be conducted to assess the situation.
Cancer Org., 2013. “How is cancer diagnosed?” Retrieved from: [http://www.cancer.org/treatment/understandingyourdiagnosis/examsandtestdescriptions/testingbiopsyandcytologyspecimensforcancer/testing-biopsy-and-cytology-specimens-for-cancer-how-is-cancer-diagnosed.]Last Reviewed: 03/07/2013
Cancer Research UK., 2014. “Cancer incidence statistics UK.” Retrieved from:[ http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-info/cancerstats/incidence/uk-cancer-incidence-statistics] Last Updated 15 September 2014.
Miaskowski C. et. al. Guideline for the management of cancer pain in adults and children. American Pain Society Clinical Practice Guidelines Series, No 3; American Pain Society 2005, Glenview, Illinois. Retrieved from:[ http://www.um.es/calidadsalud/archivos/articulo%20dolor.pdf]
National Cancer Institute (NCI). 2009. “Home Care for Cancer Patients.” Retrieved from: [http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/managing-care/home-care-fact-sheet]
National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) 2004. “Improving supportive and palliative care for adults with cancer”. Retrieved from:[ www.nice.org.uk.]
Raphael et. al., (pp. 875-900). “Cancer Pain: Part 2: Physical, Interventional and Complimentary Therapies; Management in the Community; Acute, Treatment-Related and Complex Cancer Pain: A Perspective from the British Pain Society Endorsed by the UK Association of Palliative Medicine and the Royal College of General Practitioners.” Retrieved from: [http://www.mascc.org/assets/documents/pain_Raphael_Jon_2_.pdf] Last Updated 2014
World Health Organization (WHO). 2014. “Cancer: Statistics.” Retrieved from:[ http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/]
Worth et al., (2006). “Out-of-hours palliative care: a qualitative study of cancer patients, careers and professionals.” Retrieved from:[ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1821404/]
Thompson et. al., (2007). “Prostate cancer: palliative care and pain relief” Retrieved from:[ http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org/content/83/1/341.full]
Schetcher et.al (pp. 7-11). “Pain in Infants, Children, and Adolescents.” Retrieved from:[ https://www.google.com.ph/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Qh19Z6WLsqUC&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=child+cancer+pain+management+in+UK&ots=DLx87J3gjF&sig=Cq4AvQN_iVuvxiX-LQxoq0Zt6Gs&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false]
International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). 2009. “Cancer Pain in Children.” Retrieved from:[ http://www.iasp-pain.org/files/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/CancerPainFactSheets/Children_Final.pdf]
World Health Organization (WHO) Geneva. 1998. “Cancer pain relief and palliative care in children.” Retrieved from:[ http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/9241545127.pdf]
Ward et. al., (1993). “Patient-related barriers to management of cancer pain.” Retrieved from: [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/030439599390165L]
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