Example Of Counseling Strategies Literature Review
Counseling is a technique of guiding or helping someone in making a decision in a problematic situation. Sometimes individuals, groups or even institutions need counseling when they come across complex situations. Counseling can be done by friends, family or teachers. There are also professional counselors who provide their services to their clients in various personal as well as professional matters. Professional counselors adopt innumerable strategies of counseling in order to help their clients. This paper intends to discuss various counseling strategies that can be used by professional counselors, parents, teachers and various other stakeholders in a variety of cases.
Counseling Strategy for children and Adolescents
Children and adolescents face different challenges at home, school and in society. They acquire learning from external environment and things that happen in surroundings. Adolescents also faces challenges associated with transition period. Therefore, it is important for parents, school teachers and counsellors to adopt counselling strategies that help them to cope up with the stress and pressure children and adolescents faces. Burton (2012) in his article describes counselling strategy that school teachers and professional counsellors can use while dealing with male adolescents (Burton, 2012).
Burton mentioned that gifted adolescents males learn, act and behave differently as compare to adolescent females. Gifted adolescent males often under achieve even when they posses same learning abilities and capability. The author mentioned that boys and girls do share various similarities in terms of development, physically, morally, intellectually and socially. According to the author, relationship plays a major role while treating adolescents’ males. It is important to develop trust, honesty and respect for each other (Burton, 2012).
Counsellor should share a healthy and close relationship with the clients i.e. children and adolescents. By developing emotional connections counsellor can understand present state of mind of the adolescents and how they feel about different things. The counsellors can use verbal, non-verbal, and other communication strategies in order to engage children in the communication process (Burton, 2012; English, 2012).
Burton (2012) mentioned that communication with boys should not be done in a same way as communication with girls. Boys can not sit in same position with the counsellor to share their feelings, whereas, girls like to discuss their feelings in comfortable position and with less movements. Counsellors should kept things moving while dealing with boys. Counsellors should use graphs, demonstrations, cartoons, pictures, and paintings. Counsellors should use popular media while dealing with boys. It is important that counsellor should use medium that is liked by the child or adolescent.
Dipeolu et al. (2014) mentioned that children or students with autism spectrum disorder should not be treated same as other students. It is important for school counsellors to use different strategies for children suffering from High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder. Counsellors often face challenges while dealing with students with HASD. Strategies suggested by Dipeolu et al. Are:
Involvement of Parents: Said that college counsellors should increase the involvement of parents in counselling process. Parents should understand their responsibilities towards their child. They should train their child to perform different routine functions such as grooming, personal hygiene, laundry, and shopping of small products related with personal care (Dipeolu et al., 2014).
Self-Awareness and Advocacy: students with HASD should learn more social skills post high school. Self-advocacy means informing student about their legal rights, disability and how they can communicate effectively even with their disability. Self-awareness makes students aware about their strengths, skills, and limitations. Counsellor should inform students on use of skills and strengths in social settings. Integrative comprehensive counselling strategy used by the counsellors can help students in personal, college and in career development (Dipeolu et al., 2014).
Technology-Based Solution: School counsellors can use technology and electronic tools to assist students with HASD. Tablets, smart phones, and organizers can be used by the students. These devices help students in managing their responsibilities.
Extracurricular Activities: recreational activities can be used by the counsellors to minimize the stress level of students associated with transition phase and college. Games and sports activities help students in understanding social situations and how they should react in different circumstances (Dipeolu et al., 2014).
Social Skills Acquisition: Children with HASD do not much interact with other students. Their social engagement used to be very limited as they prefer to stay in protected environment and are not very active. Training & development activities and other practices such as group participation, group games can help students in developing social skills (Dipeolu et al., 2014).
English (2012) in his article mentioned that children, adolescents and adults with hearing impairment require specific counselling strategies. The author describes that brain development of normal people is not same as people with hearing impairment. Therefore, the first step that counsellor should use is development of self-identity. English said that counsellor should facilitate the development of transitional relationship with the clients, and also encourage clients for open conversation (English, 2012).
English mentioned that effective communication with the clients can not be established without trust and emotional bonding; therefore, counsellor should adopt techniques that build trust and confidence. Counsellor should identify areas that are liked by the clients in order to make conversation interesting. Counsellors should use any topic such as sport, game, current news, animal or anything that can keep conversation going between clients and counsellors (Burton, 2012; English, 2012).
Counseling Strategy for Students
Johnson & Lambie (2012) in their article mentioned about pedagogical strategy that can be used in counselling of graduate students. This strategy helps students in gaining information and knowledge about different cultures and ethnicity. Johnson & Lambie conducted an empirical research study on group of 20 students belongs to diversified cultures. The authors mentioned that group activity and team building practice that involve group members from different cultures help group members to understand culture of other members. Knowledge of diversified cultures increases social-cognitive knowledge and maturity of students along with their knowledge on ethnic identity. Social-Cognitive development helps students in their personal as well as professional life, and career development (Johnson & Lambie, 2012).
Onemli and Yondem (2012) in their article discussed about psychoeducational group training depending on self-regulation. According to the authors, psychoeducational strategy can help students in achieving academic success by motivating them. The authors conducted a primary research study on control group of students. Pre and post evaluation method helped authors to measure the impact of psychoeducational strategy. This strategy emphasizes on development of clear goals, and motivates students to achieve those goals (Onemli and Yondem, 2012).
Rowell & Hong (2013) in their article talk about different counselling strategies and approaches that can be used by professional and school counsellors in motivating students. The authors mentioned that in school settings motivation plays a major role in career and professional development of students. Authors described different counselling methods such as primitive & remedial methods that counsellors can used to motivate children. School counsellors first can build healthy emotional relationship with the students in order to build confidence and then use primitive & remedial methods to encourage children to study and adjust in different settings (Rowell & Hong, 2013; English, 2012).
Kagnici (2014) in their article talks about benefits of multicultural counselling course and impact of the course on counselling students. The article discusses that multicultural counselling course is designed keeping in mind learning requirements of the students. According to the author, course positively impacted the learning of students by providing them multicultural knowledge. The author measured impact of the course by conducting base line and end-line evaluation. Multi-culture course helps students in gaining knowledge of different cultures that facilitate their interaction in different social settings and facilitate the treatment of clients from diversified cultures.
Counseling strategy for criminals
Counseling strategies are very effective for criminals. It has been observed in many cases that criminals commit crimes without even knowing its repercussions. There are a number of adolescents who turn into criminals by committing crimes without even knowing rights and wrongs of an act. Illiterate youths are found to be committing heinous crimes for money or other reasons. They are easily influenced by glamour of criminals. Counseling is very effective in such cases (Yin et al., 2014).
Counseling can prevent numerous youngsters and illiterate people from being criminals. In their research report, Cornish and Wade suggest that therapeutic model is effective on various criminals. Authors suggest that adopting an appropriate counseling strategy can even bring criminals back from the crime. Criminals need counseling and this is not only in their interest, but it is also in the interest of the society. Authors suggest remorse, responsibility, restoration and renewal as foremost components of their therapeutic model of counseling for criminals. Authors suggest that criminals’ behavior can be improved by applying appropriate counseling strategies (Cornish and Wade, 2015).
A variety of counseling strategy can be adopted to deter criminals from way of crime. It has been observed that criminals also realize that they are doing wrongs. They suffer from guilt feeling for the crimes that they have committed earlier for whatsoever reasons. Such criminals may leave crime and they may return into normal life if they are appropriately counseled. It has been established that appropriate counseling strategies can be effectively used for treating various criminals (Yin et al., 2014).
Falco and McCathy (2013) in their article talk about different counselling practices that are used by counsellors in effective treatment. According to the authors, informs about trends and practices used by counsellors in establishing effective relationship with the clients and delivering them treatment. The article informs readers about counsellor should use techniques to facilitate an open and healthy communication that gives client a comfortable setting. Clients share information only when they trust counsellor irrespective of their age and gender. Falco and McCathy describe the importance of counselling strategis in different settings such as students, children with abuse, criminals and other various groups (Falco and McCathy, 2013).
Counseling strategy in Health and Mental Care
Counseling can benefit people who suffer from mental disorders. Counseling can help mental patients in healing those who suffer from various kinds of mental problems and disorders. There are a variety of counseling strategies that professional counselors adopt while treating mental disorders. Dipeolu and Johnson in their research study reiterate that counseling can be very effective in treating mental disorders. Authors have collected data and research samples that describe the significance of counseling strategy in curing several mental disorders (Dipeolu and Johnson, 2014).
Counseling strategies are very effective in people who suffer from mental disorders like tension, loneliness, depression and other mental problems. It has been observed that people who suffer from mental problems are psychologically weak and vulnerable. Counseling can help people in regaining their strength. Counseling can help people in regaining their confidence that they lose due to certain unpleasant circumstances. Counseling strategies are not only effective in removing stress and mental disorders, but they also can shape the life of people by counseling them appropriately.
Various mental disorders like ADHD, HASD are successfully treated by counseling. There are a number of cases wherein people are treated by professional counsellors. Counseling strategies help people in a swift and steady manner. Counseling strategies are effective and cost saving. Counseling affects overall health of people. Various counseling strategies make people’s life better and pleasant. Children are specially benefitted by counseling as professional counselors can understand their state of mind easily and then provide customized solutions for them (Dipeolu and Johnson, 2014).
Danguilan et al. (2013) in their article described how counselling can help in improving condition of patients suffering from Kidney disease. Counselling provides information to the patients about disease and available treatments. Counselling helps patients not only in improving their knowledge but also in their health condition. Use of counselling is beneficial in healthcare field (Danguilan et al., 2013).
Children need counseling because of various reasons. Children need to know about various things and their curiosity may push them towards unseen and undisclosed problems. Children pass through a number of changes in their teen years. They also pass through different phases of tension, especially during examinations and admissions. Counseling can remove their stress and make them feel confident about their performance. Counseling can be beneficial for children in numerous ways and parents should take help of professional counselors in order to make them confident.
After considering several aspects of counseling strategies, the paper concludes that counseling and counseling strategies benefit people in different ways. Counseling helps people in reaching a conclusion and taking a decision. Counseling is advantageous for people of different sections of the society. It has been observed from a number of cases that criminals, mental patients, students, parents and various other people have been benefitted by effective strategies of counseling. Counseling strategies and their appropriate application is the need of today’s difficult times and these strategies are similarly significant for individuals, groups and institutions.
Burton, M. G. (2012). Talk Is Cheap: Exploring Alternative Strategies for Counseling Gifted Adolescent Males. Gifted Child Today, 35(3), 208-214.
Cornish, M. A., & Wade, N. G. (2015). A Therapeutic Model of Self-Forgiveness With Intervention Strategies for Counselors.Journal Of Counseling & Development, 93(1), 96-104.doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2015.00185.x
Danguilan, R. A., Cabanayan-Casasola, C. B., Evangelista, N. N., Pelobello, M. F., Equipado, C. D., Lucio-Tong, M. L., &Ona, E. T. (2013). An education and counseling program for chronic kidney disease: strategies to improve patient knowledge. Kidney International Supplement, 3(2), 215-218.doi:10.1038/kisup.2013.17
Dipeolu, A. O., Storlie, C., & Johnson, C. (2014). Transition to College and Students With High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: Strategy Considerations for School Counselors. Journal Of School Counseling, 12(11), 1-38.
English, K. (2012). Counseling Strategies for Tweens and Teens with Hearing Impairment. Journal Of Educational Audiology, 183-9.
Falco, L. D., & McCarthy, C. J. (2013). Writing for Publication: A Guide for Counseling Practice Articles. Journal Of Counseling & Development, 91(3), 343-348.
Johnson, J. M., &Lambie, G. W. (2012). A Multicultural Personal Growth Group as a Pedagogical Strategy with Graduate Counseling Students. Journal Of The Scholarship Of Teaching And Learning, 12(3), 125-141.
Kağnici, D. Y. (2014). Reflections of a multicultural counseling course: A qualitative study with counseling students and counselors. KuramVeUygulamadaEğitimBilimleri, 14(1), 53-62.
MacPherson, H., Newbronner, L., Chamberlain, R., Richmond, S. J., Lansdown, H., Perren, S., & Spilsbury, K. (2014). Practitioner Perspectives on Strategies to Promote Longer-Term Benefits of Acupuncture or Counselling for Depression: A Qualitative Study. Plos ONE, 9(9), 1-7.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104077
Onemli, M., &Yondem, Z. D. (2012). The Effect of Psychoeducational Group Training Depending on Self Regulation on Students' Motivational Strategies and Academic Achievement. Educational Sciences: Theory And Practice, 12(1), 67-73.
Rowell, L., & Hong, E. (2013). Academic Motivation: Concepts, Strategies, and Counseling Approaches. Professional School Counseling, 16(3), 158-171.
Yin, H. S., Dryer, B. P., Moreira, H. A., van Schaick, L., Rodriguez, L., Boettger, S., & Mendelsohn, A. L. (2014). Liquid Medication Dosing Errors in Children: Role of Provider Counseling Strategies. Academic Pediatrics, 14(3), 262-270.
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