Example Of Literature Review On Technological Spillovers From Multinational Presence: Towards A Conceptual Framework By Geoffrey Gachino
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Concerns over the viability of the existing framework for determining technological spillovers vis-à-vis MNCs have grown, mainly because the predominant framework characterized by theories of production function did not provide consistent findings on the link between spillover occurrence and FDIs.
Gachino emphasized that such inconsistencies arise from varying methodologies as well as specificities in firms, industries and nations.
The study by Gachino is in tune with the current context describing the lack of consistency in findings on the spillover occurrence-FDI connection using the predominant framework on theories of production function.
The spillover literature takes into account variables related to variations in time, types of industries, and those related to space and location, and endogenous technological changes. Literature on technological innovation and clustering and network dynamics involve further understandings on the overall capacity of firms to absorb technological spillovers.
Gachino prudently analyzed the literature with soundness and rigor, as all are in accordance to the threefold theoretical approach used for establishing the connection between spillover occurrence and FDIs.
The alternative framework by Gachino recognizes the need for “an endogenous, evolutionary and institutional approach that views enterprises as embedded in dynamically changing economic and social-economic-institutional networks,” given the various imperfections of technological spillovers.
The hypothesis proposed by Gachino states that the current framework on theories of production function is insufficient for consistently defining the relationship between spillover occurrence and FDIs. Using a threefold theoretical approach, Gachino was able to uphold the hypothesis well.
The research design used by Gachino revolves around the usage of a continuous gradual ordinal scale, which subjectively determined the degree of technological change. Based on said scale, Gachino computed for the spillover index, which represented spillover occurrence.
With the spillover index, Gachino was able to determine the extent of occurrence of spillovers, the kind of spillovers that occurred and their channels of occurrence. Spillover index is also found useful for determining the necessary conditions for occurrence of spillovers.
For a technically backward nation, Gachino emphasized that the threefold theoretical approach is better suited for it to fully maximize its capabilities arising from the spillovers from FDIs by MNCs. Thus, policy measures heavily reflecting the threefold theoretical approach is highly recommended.
Gachino has presented a viable development through the threefold theoretical approach involving spillover literature, technological innovations, and cluster and network dynamics. However, as FDIs continue to thrive at a developing stage, it is viable for presume that further developments may arise as a result of concerns that may emerge along the way.
Empirical Analysis of the UAE Stock Market Volatility by Sami Khedhiri and Naeem Muhammad
The growing number of foreign investors in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) due to a recent regulation has raised questions on the necessity of determining the volatility of stock markets therein.
The objective of Khedhiri and Muhammad is to determine how volatile stock markets in the UAE are, given the lack of prior studies on said matter.
Khedhiri and Muhammad are justified in studying the volatility of stock markets in the UAE because of their recent sluggishness, which is hypothesized on the involvement of foreign investors. Moreover, lack of prior studies necessitates the undertaking of Khedhiri and Muhammad.
The theoretical approach employed by Khedhiri and Muhammad involve technological change adaptation, which is derived from the entry of foreign investors that are, in turn, affecting the performance of UAE stock markets.
The literature employed by Khedhiri and Muhammad is highly relevant to the main concern on the volatility of UAE stock markets, particularly those that describe major ones such as the Abu Dhabi Stock Market (ADSM) and the Dubai Financial Market (DFM).
The appropriateness of the conceptual framework of foreign investment, stock market volatility and technological change adaptation by Khedhiri and Muhammad is justified, in that it directly approaches the hypothesis concerning the effect of foreign investors on the sluggishness of UAE stock markets.
The hypothesis proposed for this study states that foreign investors have negatively impacted the performance of UAE stock markets, particularly because of firm performance vis-à-vis technological change adaptation, which makes them torn between endogenous development and market stability.
In forecasting stock market volatility, Khedhiri and Muhammad utilized different GARCH, ARCH, and SWARCH models, all of which are empirical methods made for the foregoing purpose. A comparative analysis reveals their capability in forecasting volatility episodes by degree.
Results by Khedhiri and Muhammad affirm the hypothesis that foreign investor entry has adversely affected the performance of UAE stock markets, using the different GARCH, ARCH, and SWARCH models.
Policy implications for the given findings suggests the need to limit foreign investor entry in UAE stock markets, alongside measures on firm performance that would make their entry, when increased in the long run, more viable.
Khedhiri and Muhammad provided a viable analysis on the entry of foreign investors in the UAE and its effects on the stock markets of the nation. Foreign investment may therefore not be beneficial all the time, contrary to what many might expect given the existing literature.
Job Analysis: A Strategic Human Resource Management Practice by C. M. Siddique
The lack of job analysis in company-wide policies in the UAE affects the competitive advantage of companies therein.
The objective of Siddique is to emphasize the importance of instilling job analysis in company-wide policies in order to improve the competitiveness of companies in the UAE.
The study is justified because human resource improvement through job analysis may conflict with the need for FDIs, since firms have an alternative in the former to raise their competitiveness instead of using the latter, which can also bring them market stability risks.
The theoretical approach employed by Siddique has a lot to do with increasing competitiveness using job analysis, which is mainly a human resource concept, as against using FDIs.
The literature used by Siddique is highly relevant, as it focuses much on the growing improvements of companies in the UAE in terms of competitiveness through job analysis, considering as well the fact that FDIs are known to introduce risks to market stability, as Khedhiri and Muhammad has mentioned.
The conceptual framework formulated by Siddique mainly concerns job analysis, which makes use of information systems containing human resource data as well as greater involvement of human resources in strategic planning – factors that contribute to greater firm competitiveness that do not require FDIs.
The main hypothesis proposed by Siddique is that with job analysis, companies in the UAE may become more competitive without the need for FDIs.
Regression designs and analysis proved to be the main methodology used by Siddique in order for him to come up with his findings. Such serves as an empirical measure of measuring the effectiveness of job analysis in improving firm competitiveness in the UAE.
Findings by Siddique prove that there is an empirical link between job analysis and the performance of companies in the UAE. With that, improving human resources without the need for FDIs stands to make firms more competitive.
Siddique presents job analysis as a worthy alternative to increasing firm competitiveness. Thus, as a matter of policy, it is crucial to urge companies to employ more techniques in job analysis.
Job analysis, however, also derive from the best practices of FDIs, which may be necessary at times to improve human resources while at the same time, may not actually harm market stability. Such matter – as one may take it as a hypothesis in itself, must find further coverage in future studies.
Gachino, Geoffrey. "Technological Spillovers from Multinational Presence: Towards a Conceptual Framework." Working Paper, Maastricht Economic and Social Research and Training Centre on Innovation and Technology (MERIT), United Nations University (UNU), The Netherlands, 2007. https://ideas.repec.org/p/unm/unumer/2007017.html.
Khedhiri, Sami, and Naeem Muhammad. “Empirical Analysis of the UAE Stock Market Volatility.” International Research Journal of Finance and Economics 15 (2008): 249-260.
Siddique, C. M. “Job Analysis: A Strategic Human Resource Management Practice.” International Journal of Human Resource Management 15, no. 1 (2004): 219-244.
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