Free Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Research Paper Example
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A hundred years ago, people could not even imagine a material that can easily replace classic alloys (steel, bronze) in many industries. Moreover, the material that I researched, has much more superior properties than different materials. We are talking about carbon fiber.
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are made by combining a plastic polymer resin together with strong reinforcing fibers (Masuelli). Density - 1450 kg / m³ to 2000 kg / m³.
Composite materials are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. Most composites have strong, stiff fibres in a matrix which is weaker and less stiff.(Masuelli)
The materials are characterized by high strength, stiffness and low weight, often stronger than steel, but much lighter (in terms of specific characteristics superior high-strength steel, for example 25HGSA).
The main component of carbon fiber is a carbon filament. These strands are very thin (approximately 0,005-0,010 mm in diameter), easy to be broken, but it is difficult to be torn. Fabrics are woven of these threads then. They may have a different weave pattern (herringbone, matting, etc..).
Yarns of carbon are placed in layers in order to give greater strength of the fabric. The layers were bonded using epoxy resins. Various forms of carbon are represented on Graph 2 (Grady):
SWCNT (single-wall carbon nanotubes)
DWCNT (double-walled carbon nanotube) (Grady).
Carbon yarns are typically prepared by thermal treatment of organic chemical or natural fibers in which the fibers in the material are mainly carbon atoms. Thermal treatment consists of several steps:
The first one is the oxidation of the source (polyacrylonitrile, viscose) fibers in air at 250 ° C for 24 hours. Staircase structure is formed as a result of oxidation.
Carbonization comes after oxidation - heating the fibers in an atmosphere of nitrogen or argon at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1500 ° C. As a result of the carbonization a graphite-like structure is formed.
The process ends graphitization heat treatment at a temperature 1600-3000 ° C, which also takes place in an inert atmosphere. As a result, the amount of graphitization of carbon fiber is brought to 99%.
Apart from the usual organic fibers (viscose and often polyacrylonitrile) filaments for carbon can be used from special fibers phenolic resins, lignin, coal and petroleum pitches. In addition, details of carbon surpass strength of fiberglass items, but at the same time, they are much more expensive.
The high cost of carbon is caused, first of all, with more sophisticated production technology and greater value of derived materials. For example more expensive high-quality resin are used for gluing the layers, than when working with fiber glass, and more expensive equipment is required for the production of the parts.
CFRP properties depend on the characteristics of the carbon fibers used, the type and texture form a reinforcing filler, the properties of the polymer matrix. People use accumulated considerable amount of information about the physical and mechanical properties of epoxy carbon fiber reinforced plastics, their behavior under different types of loading (static, re-statics, dynamics) and deformation (tensile, compression, shear, cut, collapse), as well as resource and their life in different products. Carbon composites have sufficiently high rupture strength and low creep due to high stiffness and low deformability of carbon fibers. Coefficient of prolonged resistance of CFRP in the operating temperature ranges t = 80 200 ° C and the duration of load r = 500 1000 hours in tension and compression is 0.5 0.9% of the value of short-term strength of the material. These characteristics have a beneficial effect on the performance of the material under long-term loading with high operating voltages. Carbon composites have the highest fatigue strength among known KM.
On the complex properties of carbon composites are significantly higher than traditional steel, aluminum and titanium alloys, having a higher specific strength and stiffness, high fatigue strength and long-term, the ability to control the anisotropy of properties, a wide complex of thermal and electrical performance, multi-purpose. Carbon composites are increasingly used in various industries.
Thus reinforced plastics must be strictly maintained with the technological parameters of the production of carbon fiber, in order to avoid a reduction of the strength properties of products. The production also requires a complex and costly control measures of quality of products (including ultrasonic testing, X-ray, eddy-current, optical holography and even acoustic control).
Another serious disadvantage of carbon fiber reinforced plastics is their low resistance to shock loads. Structural damage due to impact of foreign objects in the form of internal cracks and bundles can be invisible to the eye, but lead to a reduction in strength; destruction of the damaged structure strikes can occur even at the strain of 0.5%.
Application. Due to its high resistance to chemically aggressive liquids and gases carbon composites are successfully used in chemical engineering for the manufacture of reactors, centrifuges pipelines, pump vanes, precipitation baths, exhaust pipes. The design of the looms are made of carbon fiber and the collecting guide rods, heald frames, rapiers, needles, rods, allowing for increased component life, improve durability, reduce the amount of effort to raise the productivity of the machine, to reduce energy consumption.
High radiation resistance of carbon fiber reinforced plastics makes them very effective in the use of neutron equipment for the manufacture of containers and transport of radioactive material for radioactive waste disposal.
High biological and mechanical compatibility of carbon fibers with living tissues determine the prospects for their use in medical technology.
Low coefficient of linear thermal expansion CFRP allows to use them in the manufacture of cryogenic technology for storage of cylinders of liquefied gases as well as pipelines, valves.
Carbon composites with high heat resistance are used in metallurgy as reinforcement and lining furnaces, parts of devices immersed in the liquid metal, steel parts and assemblies of machines. Carbon composites are increasingly used in construction to make the panels of houses, beams, span bridges, cranes.
In the electrical industry carbon composites are effective to create blades of wind power plants of various capacities in electric motors, dashboards, for the manufacture of Transmission tower in insulators for high voltage transmission lines to protect against electromagnetic waves, in the means of communication antennas, radio devices, speaker cone.
In railway transport efficient use of carbon fiber reinforced plastics for the manufacture of wagons, containers, suspension assemblies.
In the oil and gas industry carbon composites are used in the pipes for drilling deep wells, pipelines.
Carbon composites are widely used in the manufacture of sports equipment, sports planes. They significantly help reduce weight and increase rigidity and the performance of airplanes and gliders, driving performance racing vessels, yachts, kayaks, canoes. Of them are made for racing bicycles, motorcycles, poles, paddles, rackets, golf, tennis, bows, arrows, fishing rods, hockey sticks, skis, ski poles and so forth.
The importance and use demand may be clearly understood from the Table 3 (Rahman) and 4 (Holmes). We may see that the dement is constantly growing. About 1000% growth is forecasted I the next 5-6 years (nanocomposite ) and almost 100% growth in carbon fibre.
In my report I have tried to describe as accurately as possible the chemical carbon, carbon products and their applications in engineering. It can be concluded that the substance is essential in all sectors of the industry due to its unique properties, thus some some drawbacks should be also highlighted (energy-intensive, the complexity of production). Nevertheless, global demand is growing very fast.
ATEEQ RAHMAN, ILIAS ALI, SAEED M. AL ZAHRANI, RABEH H. ELEITHY. A REVIEW OF THE APPLICATIONS OF NANOCARBON POLYMER COMPOSITES. Riyadh, SA: King Saud University, 2011. Web. 28 Feb. 2015. <http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/pdf/10.1142/S179329201100255X>.
Mark Holmes. "Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics Market Continues Growth Path (Part 1)." Reinforced Plastics. N.p., 7 Jan. 2014. Web. 28 Feb. 2015.
Martin Alberto Masuelli. Introduction of Fibre-Reinforced Polymers − Polymers and Composites: Concepts, Properties and Processes. N.p., 2013. Web. 28 Feb. 2015.
U.S. Department of Energy. Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Pursuing the Promise. N.p., 2014. Print. 28 Feb. 2015. <http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/03/f8/fiber_reinforced_composites_factsheet.pdf>.
Representation of US nanocomposite demand (million pounds).
Global demand for carbon fibre in tonnes 2008-2020 *estimated).
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