Free Report About Measurement & Evaluation For Sport & Exercise Physiology
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The significance of cardiovascular fitness to people’s health has been well recognized. For Cardiovascular fitness, the components of activity incorporated are not merely for endurance training and muscular development. VO2 max or maximal oxygen uptake determines an athlete's ability to conduct sustained exercise and is associated with aerobic endurance. Measuring VO2 max perfectly necessitates a maximum exertion usually on a bicycle or treadmill executed under strict rules in a sports lab. This paper seeks to make a comparison between the NASA predictive equation and the Cooper 12-minute run test and the Astrand and Rhyming Cycle Ergometer Test.
This study involves 167 participants. Out of 167 participants, 79.6% or 133 are males and 20.4% or 34 are females. This activity utilized a validated prediction equation developed by Jackson et al. (1990) to determine maximum aerobic capacity. Another technique used to assess the cardiovascular wellness is the Queens College Step Test. This test is considered to be more functional in making an estimation of the VO2 max particularly when the testing includes a huge populace or when the time or equipment is constrained. On the other hand, the Rockport 1-Mile Walk Test is the most widely utilized test for measuring cardiorespiratory wellness and is right now utilized as a part of clinical, relaxation and exercise center situations. The results of the study showed a positive relationship between the NASA equations or estimation of the VO2max and the Queen's College Step Test and the NASA equations or estimation of the VO2max and the Rockport 1-mile walk test.
The significance of cardiovascular fitness to people’s health has been well recognized (Sinku 2012). Physical fitness is an essential component for all life’s undertakings. The cardiovascular fitness of a person is primarily reliant on lifestyle associated influences including the everyday level of physical activity (Sinku 2012). It was thought that the low level of cardiovascular fitness of a person is related to greater risk of death (Jourkhesh et al. 2012). For Cardiovascular fitness, the components of activity incorporated are not merely for endurance training and muscular development. The heart, lungs, as well as the circulatory system are likewise the focal points in fitness and health. The primary reason behind this is to enhance the immune system function, boost the stamina, and maintain a good composition of the body. According to Amusa and Goon (2011), cardiovascular fitness diminishes the danger of cardiovascular diseases as well as other illnesses such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and may treat health problems such as asthma.
WHAT IS VO2MAX
VO2 max or maximal oxygen uptake determines an athlete's ability to conduct sustained exercise and is associated with aerobic endurance (Quinn 2014). VO2 max pertains to the maximum volume of oxygen that a person can employ when performing maximal or intense exercise (Quinn 2014). Froek (2013) describes VO2 max as the main indicator that defines aerobic endurance and cardiovascular fitness. VO2 max is impacted by various components, including sex, age, height, and hereditary qualities. Improving training volume and power are the two essential approaches to enhance VO2 max, as indicated by the National Strength and Conditioning Association (Quinn 2014). This estimation is for the most part considered the best measure of a person’s aerobic endurance and cardiovascular fitness. Hypothetically, the greater the amount of oxygen one can use when performing increased level of physical activities, the greater ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) energy an individual can create.
Measuring VO2 max perfectly necessitates a maximum exertion usually on a bicycle or treadmill executed under strict rules in a sports lab. These rules include particular increments in the force and rate of the activity and the estimation and accumulation of the volume and oxygen convergence of air inspired and expired. This determines the volume of oxygen the person is utilizing. A person’s oxygen utilization rises in a direct association with activity power - up to a point. There is a particular time when oxygen utilization reaches its plateau regardless of the possibility that the activity force increments. This state of plateau denotes the V02 max. It is an excruciating point in VO2 max testing in which the person shifts from high-impact aerobic system to anaerobic system. The test ordinarily takes somewhere around 10 and 15 minutes and requires a person to be totally refreshed and motivated to persevere through the entire activity to determine the VO2 max.
There are several methods to measure VO2 max (Pogliaghi 2014). These methods can be done with or without exercising. Among all methods of assessing VO2 max, the most reliable and valid approach is the direct gas analysis. The NASA predictive equation was pioneered by Jackson et al. (1990). NASA predictive equation is an estimation of the value of VO2 max in the absence of exercise. This is usually predicted based on the person’s weight, height, age, and levels of physical activity. Although the NASA predictive equation is acceptable in the clinical setting, this often creates validity concerns when applied to athletes because of the self-estimated levels of physical activity.
Submaximal exercise testing overcomes many of the limitations of maximal exercise testing, and it is the method of choice for the majority of individuals seen by individuals who are likely to be limited physically by pain and fatigue or have abnormal gait or impaired balance. Noonan and Dean (2000) suggest that a detailed surgical and medical history is required to recognize the indications for the exercise assessment. One example of a predictive submaximal exercise tests is the modified Bruce treadmill test. The Bruce Treadmill test is a maximal test designed to examine coronary heart disease (Noonan & Dean 2000). The modified test begins at a zero stage or 1.7 mph at 0% grade (Noonan & Dean 2000).
Another technique used to assess the cardiovascular wellness is the Queens College Step Test. This test is considered to be more functional in making an estimation of the VO2 max particularly when the testing includes a huge populace or when the time or equipment is constrained. This step is additionally beneficial to use in a field circumstance and does not require the vicinity of an exceedingly prepared work force or lavish equipment. On the other hand, the Rockport 1-Mile Walk Test is the most widely utilized test for measuring cardiorespiratory wellness and is right now utilized as a part of clinical, relaxation and exercise center situations (Fentstermaker et al. 1992).
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This paper seeks to make a comparison between the NASA predictive equation and the Queens College Step Test and between the NASA predictive equation and the Rockport 1-Mile Walk Test.
Is there a statistically significant relationship between VO2 max scores obtained from the NASA predictive equation and the Queen’s College Step Test?
Is there a statistically significant relationship between VO2 max scores obtained from the NASA predictive equation and the Rockport 1-Mile Walk Test?
This study involves 167 participants. Out of 167 participants, 79.6% or 133 are males and 20.4% or 34 are females. The mean age of the participants is 20±2 years. The average body mass of males is 24.52 ± 3.53 kg while that of females in 22.80 ± 2.39 kg.
This activity utilized a validated prediction equation developed by Jackson et al. (1990) to determine maximum aerobic capacity. The BMI (Body Mass Index) evaluates the weight with regard to height and is calculated by dividing body weight in kilograms by height in meters squared (kg / m2). PA-R in comparison speaks to the NASA/Johnson Space Center physical movement scale (Jackson et al. 1990). In anticipating the NASA JSC Physical Activity, it is imperative that members precisely and truthfully report their current level of physical movement. Over or under-assessing the amount of action members partake in impacts the expectation of greatest oxygen uptake.
In conducting the Queen’s College Step Test, the member's heart rate is taken and observed. Pretest heart rate in standing position was measured. A 41.3 cm bench seat was utilized. The members ventured onto the seat with one leg, then the other and ventured down in comparable way. Legs must be stretched out before shifting to another leg. The activity was finished for three minutes. Heart rate is then tallied over a 15-second period from 5 to 20 seconds. The VO2 max was figured utilizing the accompanying comparisons:
Male: o2max(ml.kg-1.min-1) = 111.33 – (0.42 x pulse rate)
Female: o2max(ml.kg-1.min-1) = 65.81 – (0.1847 x pulse rate)
In doing the Rockport 1-Mile Walk Test, the subjects walked a one-mile set separation on a level surface. In the wake of finishing the walk, heart rate is checked to give a record of cardiovascular wellness. Before the start of the test, weight and height were documented. The subject's heart rate preceding the start of the test was likewise measured. Instantly on the start of the 1-mile walk, the subject stays standing whilst post- exercise heart rate is measured for a 15-second period, from 5 to 20 s post-exercise. This 15-second count is multiplied by four to convert the heart rate to beats.min-1. Anticipated VO2max is then measured utilizing the following computations:
VO2max (ml.kg.min-1) = 132.853 – 0.1692(mass) – 0.3877(age) + 6.315(gender) – 3.2649 (time) – 0.1565(HR)
A. NASA JSC vs. Queen’s College Step Test
A multiple regression of 0.59 recommends a reasonably strong direct relationship between the two submaximal testing systems namely NASA and QCST. The R-squared for the diagram demonstrates that 35% of the VO2 max scores acquired from NASA JSC are not in charge of the outcomes acquired from QCST. A centrality estimation of 0.003 which is lower than the p-value 0.05 proposes that there is critical connection between the result of NASA JSC estimation of VO2 max and that of the QCST.
B. NASA JSC vs. Rockport 1-Mile Walk Test
A multiple regression of 0.51 recommends a reasonably strong direct relationship between the two submaximal testing systems namely NASA and QCST. The R-squared for the diagram demonstrates that 26% of the VO2 max scores acquired from NASA JSC are not in charge of the outcomes acquired from QCST. A significance value that is lower than the p-value 0.05 proposes that there is a critical connection between the results of NASA JSC estimation of VO2 max and the RMWT.
The points on the second graph show a low VO2 max score in the Rockport 1-mile walk test relative to the high score in NASA equation. This is definite to the assumptions of McSwegin et al. (1998) on athletic groups. Moreover, the RMWT does not emphasize the aerobic system of individuals with a greater maximal aerobic value adequate enough to make estimation. On the other hand, the regression value obtained by correlation the scores of VO2 max from the NASA equation and the Queen’s College Step Test demonstrates a strong positive correlation (r=0.51). Nevertheless, experts suggested that in studies in which participants were not separated in terms of their gender, the regression value was possibly imprecise. This is mostly in light of the fact of the greater homogeneity in VO2 max scores.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The limitations of this study lies on the way that heart rate in QCST was assessed physically. Such manner of measurement gives room for errors which would have been reduced or averted through the utilization of a heart rate monitor that offers a resting heart rate measurement and also a post work heart rate. Then again, the limit with the Rockport 1-mile walk test is the consciousness of the guidelines to walk as quickly as possible. Members have a tendency to understand such direction as basically to hasten their typical strolling pace. This misconception results to incorrectness in the information results.
Amusa, L. O., Goon, D. T. 2011. Health-related physical fitness among rural primary school children in Tshannda, South Africa. Scientific Research and Essays 6(22): 4665-4680
Astrand, P. O., & Ryhming, I. (1954). A nomogram for calculation of aerobic capacity
(physical fitness) from pulse rate during submaximal work. Journal of Applied Physiology, 7:218-221.
Fenstermaker, K., Plowman, S., & Looney, M. (1992). Validation of the Rockport walking test in females 65 years and older. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 63: 322-327.
Froek, B. (2013). VO2 Max Training | LIVESTRONG.COM. [online] Livestrong.com. Available at: http://www.livestrong.com/article/447500-vo2-max-training/ [Accessed 17 Apr. 2015].
Jackson, A.S. Blair, S.N. Mahar, M.T. Wier, L.T. Ross, R.M. Stuteville, J.E. (1990). Prediction of functional aerobic capacity without exercise testing. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22 (6), 863 – 870.
Jourkesh, M., Iraj Sadri, I., Ojagi, A. and Sharanavard, A. 2011. Comparison of Physical fitness level among the students of IAU, Shabestar Branch. Annals of Biological Research, 2(2): 460-467
Noonan, V. and Dean, E. (2000). Submaximal Exercise Testing: Clinical Application and Interpretation.Physical Therapy, 80.
Pogliaghi S, e. (2014). "Tailored" submaximal step test for VO2max prediction in healthy older adults. - PubMed - NCBI. [online] Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23752341 [Accessed 18 Apr. 2015].
Quinn, E. (2014). What Is VO2 Max and Why Do Athletes Care?. [online] About.com Health. Available at: http://sportsmedicine.about.com/od/anatomyandphysiology/a/VO2_max.htm [Accessed 17 Apr. 2015].
Sinku, S. (2012). Cardiovascular Fitness among Sedenatry Students. Journal of Exercise Science and Physiotherapy, 8(2), pp.109-112.
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