Free Research Paper About Units, Measurements And Machines Used In Oil And Gas Industry Which Apply Thermodynamics
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The report is divided into two major sections. The first section of the report deals with a discussion about fundamental physical quantities together with their SI units. The quantities highlighted in the report include Mass, length, time, temperature and plane angle. A discussion of the derived physical quantities together with their units has also been presented in clear detail. The second part of the report focuses on providing a discussion of two machines that apply thermodynamics and are used in oil and gas industry. The machines identified to apply the principles of thermodynamics and are widely used in gas and oil industries are Screw pumps and line heaters. Information is provided for each machine detailing design features, operation and advantages that make the machines to be used in oil and gas industry.
2.0 Table of Contents
1.0 Abstract 2
2.0 Table of Contents3 3.0 List of tables 4
4.0 Introduction 5
5.0 Part one: Units and measurements 6
5.1 Principles and techniques 6
6.0 Part two: Screw pumps and line heaters 10
6.1 Screw pump 11
6.1.1 Design 11
6.1.2 Operating principle 11
6.1.3 Advantages of using screw pumps 12
6.2 Heater 12
6.2.1 Design 12
6.2.2 Operation 12
6.2.3 Advantages 12
7.0 Conclusion 13
8.0 References 13
9.0 Appendix 13
3.0 List of tables
There are five main fundamental quantities relevant to the working of engineering principles. The fundamental quantities include temperature, mass, length, time and plane angle. Most of engineering fields like thermodynamics and statics rely on the use knowledge of fundamental quantities to design functional machine. For instance, most equipments and machines designed in mechanical engineering rely on application of fundamental quantities together with their derived physical quantities. Derived physical quantities are vitally important quantities though are expressed in terms of the basic or rather, fundamental quantities, and in some instance with other derived quantities by various mathematical expressions and computations.
The base SI units as well as derived dimensions are very important in deciding on the dimensions of the machine to be made. Due to the unavoidable needs to apply basic principles of engineering in the design and manufacture of machines used in the oil and gas industry, it becomes necessary to discuss various units and measurements associated with fundamental quantities.
This report has been divided into two major sections. The first section deals with units and measurement by providing information about fundamental physical quantities together with their SI units. The fundamental quantities include Mass, length, time, temperature and plane angle. A discussion of the derived physical quantities together with their units has also been presented in clear detail. The second part of the report focuses on providing a discussion of two machines that apply thermodynamics and are used in oil and gas industry. The machines identified to apply the principles of thermodynamics and are widely used in gas and oil industries are Screw pumps and line heaters. Information is provided for each machine detailing design features, operation and advantages that make the machines to be used in oil and gas industry.
5.0 Part one: Units and measurements
5.1 Principles and techniques
There are a number of principles and techniques considered while making engineering decisions. Many factors are considered when selecting a given principle or technique to ensure that it complies with the stipulated engineering standards (Ivanoff). The principles and techniques considered during engineering decision making should have been discovered as a result of engineering reasoning. Various engineering problems and challenges should be effectively addressed by use of the discovered principle. Although a list of engineering principles and techniques is long, a few of them can be quoted to provide insight into the matter. For instance many of engineering principles have been centered on force and its effect on external bodies. Among the principles developed with respect to action of force on bodies include the principle of both action and reaction force (Ivanoff 9). We also have the principle dealing with transmissibility. In addition, there is the principle of forces forming a parallelogram.
Taking a look at the principle of both action and reaction of force, clear explanation is provided to justify the effect felt by one body as a result of being acted upon by another force (Ivanoff 5). Each body that experiences an action force, it also experiences an equal but opposite force. Despite the forces being opposite to each other, they are collinear to each other. Concerning the principle of transmissibility, there is no alteration of the effect caused by the force due to the change in position of the point of application. The concept holds true so long as the change of the point of application still remains along the line of application (Ivanoff 2). Similar scenario holds true when a screw pump is used to either pull or pump a gas or oil during mining or refinery process. In addition there is the principle dealing with parallelogram of forces. The principle of parallelogram can be well illustrated by considering magnitude and directions of two intersecting forces being represented by adjacent lines. The combined action of the forces is equal to the auctioned produced by a single force denoted by the parallelograms diagonal. In this case, the force that produces similar effect like the two forces under consideration is then referred to as the resultant force.
The study of units mostly focuses on exploiting all the relevant engineering concepts, by use of physical quantities. The main objective is based on determining the physical substance, object or process. Then, it becomes important to note that fundamental quantities can be applied during description and determination of the relations for all existing physical quantities. For instance, someone can comfortably determine the speed of a moving car (Ivanoff). According to the example, it is clear that there is the aspect of a physical object (the car) whose speed can be easily determined.
While discussing units and measurements, the fundamental concepts considered include mass, length, time as well as plane angles. The components are symbolically represented by M, L, T, ϑ and Rad. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions have been combined according to engineering principles resulting to other derived dimensions. Examples of the derived dimensions include force, volume, energy, pressure, area, density and acceleration. Depending on the field of practice the aforementioned derived quantities are mostly symbolically represented as F, V, E, P, A, ρ and a respectively.
It is important to note that all equations formed with respect to physical quantities have to be homogeneously balanced. For instance in order for one to determine volume of a regular cuboids, he or she has to apply a homogeneously balanced equation. The volume will be determined by multiplying length by width by the height.
Volume = l x b x h, where l- length
Clearly, the multiplication of quantities involved are all in length giving Volume units to m3. Velocity and accelerations are among those derived quantities that apply derivatives to establish them.
Acceleration = Change in Velocity in Unit time or rather, in mathematic function is differentiating velocity function with respect to time gives its acceleration function. And that leaves us with the following units for such derived quantities;
Velocity, v = dl/dt though with a sense of direction, and its units being m/s.
But Acceleration, a =dv/dt and mathematically expressing it.
a = (m/s)/s resulting to m/s2.
Therefore, as illustrated in the above examples, the units of derived physical quantities are drawn from the fundamental ones with even others still use the derived quantities to actually generate their units. For example,
Force = mass x acceleration where in this situation a is a derived physical quantity that originates from velocity, v. Other such forms of derived physical quantities: density, pressure, viscosity etc.
Real life application of engineering principles has been facilitated by keen observation and application of metrology. All physical quantities have a single standard unit and their Units as well as practical measuring instruments are specified. Under metrology, all SI units of measurements for the physical as well as derived physical quantities are specified. The SI units for any given physical quantity has been universally determined and accepted internationally. The SI units have proved of being important due to the coherence associated with each of them.
Length is the quantity that shows distance separating two points or the distance between two points, and its SI unit is meters. The quantity is measured by measuring tape, Vernier caliper, ruler as well as a micrometer. On the other hand, plane angles are measured by use of protractors. According to the information provided in the table 1, the SI unit of plane angle is Radian. In other terms a radian has been described as the angle which is subtended at the center of the circle by an arc whose length is equal to the radius of the circle. Therefore, a complete circle adds up to 2π. Other units allowed for use while measuring plane angles include degrees, minutes and seconds. The device used for measuring plane angle is a protractor.
Mass is defined as the quantity of matter contained in an object or substance. Mass of an object is determined by measuring the available quantity of matter in it. The SI unit of mass is Kilogram. However, there are other derived units that use to represent quantity of matter contained in a given body. The units include milligram, gram, kilogram, megagram and gigagram. Sometimes mass is expressed I n terms of tones. Whereby, one tone is equal to one thousand kilograms.
There are also decimal prefixes universally accepted internationally to carter for both multiples and submultiples of each SI unit. The decimal prefixes are as shown below.
Temperature: temperature of a body is the measure of coldness or warmth of an object or substance with respect to some given standard scale. There are two types of scale than can be used while measuring temperature. The first is thermodynamic temperature scale measured in Kelvin scale. The second scale called Practical scale, sometimes referred to as Celsius scale, and measured in degrees Celsius. The relationship between the two scales is as shown below;
T (K) = T (00) +273.15
There are also, other preferred systems of measurement applied as per the British systems and American systems. Taking a look at the British system, they had their empirical units in use before the development of base units for fundamental quantities. For instance, they used Inch, feet and yards when measuring fundamental and derived quantities of length. For mass, some of the units in use included ounces and pounds. When it came to measuring time, the emperial units were similar to the Base units as the units in use included seconds, minutes and hours. The US system also had the same units for time.
6.0 Part two: Screw pumps and line heaters
There are a number of industrial processes that take place during mining, refining and transportation of both oil and gas products. In order to meet the set requirements for mining, processing and transportation of quality petroleum products to the desired destination and in the desired form, high machines and equipments have to be used (Kidnay). Among the machines and equipments required for successful refinery of petroleum products include Screw pumps and line heaters.
6.1 Screw pump
The design of a screw pump is such that it has a pair of parallel-supported but intermeshing screw rotors with threads that are synchronous (Bronnikov). They threads are not in contact but counter rotate inside a well designed cylindrical housing. The assembly forms a simple but high quality screw pump. The pump does not have a valve at the both outlets and inlets points. This means that when the displaced volume of the oil/gas reaches the outlet, its pressure equals atmospheric pressure, thereby allowing air to flow in and replace the displaced volume.
6.1.2 Operating principle
During operation, there is generation of heat due to pulsating of the gas/oil as it flows. This generated heat results to heating of the pump at the outlet section. The heating process then calls for cooling at the affected pump section. The resultant effect of both heating and cooling effect on the rotor and housing leads to a temperature differential. The effect of both temperature and heating produced is directly proportional to the range of pressure at the inlet valve. This implies that the temperature will be low if the pressure is low and vice versa. When the pump is in operation, for the case of a gas, the oscillation resulting from atmospheric air will lead higher pressure at the outlet valve.
6.1.3 Advantages of using screw pumps
The pump is reliable for heavy duty performance. The factors that make it reliable are the simple design, structure and low speed.
It is capable of rowing oil containing heavy solids or other floating debris.
The screw scoops oil by itself thereby eliminating the need to have a collection sump.
Very little maintenance is required.
Has high efficiency with variable quantity of oil.
The heater is designed to transfer heat to the process stream via a heat transfer medium. The heat transfer medium surrounds process flow coil and the firebox. Both accessories and equipment design are given a variation according to process requirements and bath media. The bath media is designed to accommodate temperatures ranging from 60°F to 190°F.
The heater uses fuel gas which is burnt at the horizontally designed firebox, which is mostly immersed in a water bath. The heat generated by burning fuel is then transmitted through the firebox to the water bath. The same transmission of heat continues during operation to maintain the desired range of temperature. The oil or gas being heated conducts heat through the heater’s flow coil connected to the upper part of water bath. Water bath temperature is maintained at the desired range by use of the heater temperature controller.
Heaters can be custom made to match with the working conditions in the oil or gas industry.
They can in different designs for different working such as water bath heaters and oil bath heaters.
Fundamental quantities together with their base SI units are very important when designing engineering machines and equipments. It is thus important for engineering students and profession to be well informed about the various fundamental quantities together with their derived physical dimensions. One needs to be acquainted with information concerning units and measurements relevant with a given field of engineering. For instance, mechanical engineering students and personnel specializing in the study of oil and gas industry have to understand basic principles concerning thermodynamics and statics. In addition, machines and equipments applying the principles of thermodynamics such as screw pumps and line heaters have to be analyzed in detail to facilitate optimum performance for the industry. The report provided a detailed analysis of units and measurement relevant with the basic engineering principles. In addition, the discussion about screw pumps and heaters provided reliable evidence as examples of machines used in oil and gas industry that apply the principle of thermodynamics.
Bronnikov, K. A., et al. "On new definitions of SI base units. Why is the" atomic" kilogram preferable." arXiv preprint arXiv:1410.7906 (2014).
Kidnay, Arthur J., William R. Parrish, and Daniel G. McCartney. Fundamentals of natural gas processing. Vol. 218. CRC Press, 2011.
Ivanoff, V, Engineering Mechanics. McGraw-Hill. Australia, 2010.
Mass: quantity of matter contained in a body
Length: the distance between two points.
Temperature: measures the degree of either hotness or coldness of a medium or substance.
Physical quantity: a measurable attribute associated with substance, physical object or process.
Plane angle: inclination of a straight line to another in a plane.
Radian: angle subtended at the center of any given circle by an arc equal to the radius.
SI unit: set of both base units and derived units that correspond with fundamental as well as derived dimensions.
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