Good Example Of Extended Response Question Essay

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Social Issues, Inequality, Sociology, Nature, Law, Rousseau, Enlightenment, Democracy

Pages: 3

Words: 825

Published: 2020/12/28

The Origin of Inequality Among Mankind

The inequality is the criterion by which one can be placed above or below the group of the others. And the social structure turns into a social stratification - a set arranged in a vertical manner of social strata. The inequality means unequal access of large social groups of people (strata layers, classes, castes) to economic resources, social benefits and political power.
Social inequality existed for almost the entire history of mankind. Despite the fact that in all ages inequality was condemned, subjected to withering criticism and never sympathy with the members of the society, the people in the historical practice with remarkable tenacity resisted the creation of a "perfect" societies based on social equality and the absence of oppression and domination of some social groups other . The members of the society are constantly creating new kinds of hierarchical social structures based on inequality. The origins of social inequality Rousseau saw in the natural differences of people in the physical data, personal qualities, internal energy, as well as the strength of motivation, aimed at meeting the most important, urgent needs.
Originally appearing inequality is generally extremely unstable and does not lead to the consolidation of social status. This type of inequality is observed in the early Middle Ages, in the twilight of the ancient world, when almost all the leaders of the barbarian tribes tribesmen were elected and had among them a lot of power. Relatively primitive culture does not create social norms to rigidly fix the relations of inequality. The next stage in the development of relations of inequality is to consolidate the status quo, which is added at some point during the exchange.

Inequality is not Authorized by Natural Law

Natural law is the concept of the philosophy of law and jurisprudence, meaning a set of principles and inalienable rights deriving from human nature and independent from an objective point of view of humanity. Natural law is opposed to positive law, firstly as a perfect ideal norm to imperfect existing norm, and secondly, as a rule stems from the very nature and therefore unchangeable - to changeable norm which is dependent on human settings. Rousseau gave the character of radicalism to natural low concept in the way as it acts in an era of revolution. Logically developing requirements of individualism, he defends the idea of ​​inalienable popular sovereignty. It requires that the state and everyone obeyed only their own free will, and to keep their freedom. The only remedy for this, he said, is the participation of all citizens in public decisions and the establishment of inalienable control by the people over the actions of the authorities. This is the central idea of “Contrat social”, which was a powerful force in the revolutionary struggle for freedom.
In the natural state, according to Rousseau, there is no private property, everyone are free and equal. Inequality is initially in only physical differences caused by natural persons. However, with the advent of private property and social inequality, contrary to the natural equality, the struggle between rich and poor begins.
The escape from these conditions, inspired by "clever" arguments of the rich and at the same time due to the vital interests of all, was in the agreement on the establishment of state authority and laws that will be the subject to everyone. However, having lost their natural freedom, the poor do not have gained political freedom. According to Rousseau, created by this agreement a government and laws imposed “a new tie-up on the weak people and reinvigorating the rich, irretrievably destroyed natural liberty, established forever the law of property and inequality, turned nimble usurpation in the inalienable right and for the benefit of a few ambitious men doomed since the entire human race to work slavery and poverty”.

Examples of Social Manifestation of Inequality

When considering the problem of social inequality, it is fully justified on the theory of socio - economic heterogeneity of labor. Performing qualitatively unequal types of work, to varying extent satisfying social needs, people sometimes find themselves involved in economic heterogeneity of labor, because these types of labor have different assessment of their social utility.
The first stage of inequality, according to Rousseau, is the emergence of property rights and the division of society into rich and poor. Based on this Rousseau argued the need to replace the state of social inequality by new state of social equality. With this concept, he linked the possibility of eliminating the division of society into rich and poor in conjunction with political inequality. A situation in which inequality in the ownership automatically leads to the inequality of rights – and it turns out that the rich (regardless of their abilities) have more rights - is absurd and socially unstable.
Rousseau figured out that the second stage of inequality is the emergence of the state on the basis of the social contract between rich and poor, which led to a new contrast - between strong and weak, between dominant and subservient.
The third (highest) stage of inequality is a shift from legitimate authorities to despotic authority based on arbitrariness when initially elected magistrates have become hereditary. At this stage, all the people become "equal" in the sense that everyone becomes “nonentity” for the ruling despot. From this point appears domination and enslavement.

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