Good Types Of Strategies For Implementing Technology 3 Research Paper Example
Type of paper: Research Paper
Topic: Technology, Strategy, Nursing, Innovation, Health, Organization, Breastfeeding, Risk
Technology has been an element in the enhancement of healthcare. With the development of many technologies, healthcare has received a lot of new technologies that have been instrumental in the management of the healthcare processes. The process of implementing a new technology in healthcare nursing makes use of various types of strategies. The strategies include e-nursing strategy, e-learning strategy, multifaceted strategies (A combination of different strategies), innovation, planning, analysis, technology transfer, technology diffusion. Other strategies include managerial strategies, management information system, proactive strategies and initiative to support better distribution of health personnel and facilities. This paper explains each one of these strategies including their effectiveness and ineffectiveness. The paper ends with a suggestion for the most successful type of strategy that is suitable for healthcare nursing. The IT diffusion strategy has been suggested to be the most successful strategy in implementing new technology in an organization which in this case is the hospital environment. This paper will focus on the implementation of new technologies in the healthcare. It will focus on the different strategies which have been implemented and the success that these technologies have brought to the nursing field.
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TYPES OF STRATEGIES FOR IMPLEMENTING TECHNOLOGY
There are various types of strategies for implementing technology in healthcare nursing. Firstly is the e-nursing strategy. This strategy helps in the integration of ICT in to their practice in order to get better result for the clients. The nurses needs to have the needed information and skills to enable the support of their practice This strategy is also used to facilitate human resources planning, support of fresh models of nursing practices as well as health services delivery. The e-nursing strategy will also help nursing groups to be well connected and enhanced the quality of work place for nurses through the help of ICT. This strategy will also allow nurses to have timely reachable, evidence-based information for the purpose of improving the client resistant to change and safety of patient. It has also been identified that the employment of ICT is likely to benefit both the nursing professionals and the healthcare system as a whole.
Apart from integration of ICT in to nursing practice, the strategy is also meant to support both development and implementation of nursing information competencies among the required competencies in addition to continuing competence. It also supports the involvement of nurses of nurses in decision making concerning information technology together with information systems. E-learning also involves other different partners such as governments, educators and nursing regulatory boards for the successful implementation.
Another strategy is the e-learning strategy. This involves offering education products and tools online in the most frequent way. The products and tools include the latest inventory program for education, educational institutions, workshops, competencies; online databases, textbooks and journals, tutorials offering fundamental computer skills with search and assessment training. In addition, there are also online courses which comprises of self-directed learning modules in the particular areas of practice which should be provided. Others include current information on timely topics, competencies, best practices as well as 24 hour helpline.
Next is the technological innovation strategy whereby coaching and training are factors related to the successful; introduction of technological innovation. In a case where training and even coaching are seen to be sufficient, then the innovation is often cited as a fascinating factor. The technology is perceived to be used easily if it is accompanied by help desk or other kinds of health support system.
Multifaceted strategies:- This comprise of a combination of different strategies with the main goal of enabling nurses to benefit from all developments in ICT in order to enhance nursing practice and results of patients/clients. This involves from all areas of practice ranging from clinical care, education, research, policy, and administration and healthcare partners from different disciplines as well as from leaders in every area of service delivery for health. This multifaceted strategies aims at involving nurses in clinical practice, nurse educators in addition to researchers, nursing organization, administrators, healthcare employers as well as governments to make sure that nursing makes its best future contribution to healthcare within the context of healthcare system that employs this strategy efficiently to maximize resource use. This offers the highest quality of care possible.
Planning strategy:- Planning is a management type of strategy used by management to plan on how to introduce and implement fresh technology in an organization based on the available resources. The resources considered during the plan include human resource experts, finances as well as time frames. This implies that the implementation of any new technology is dependent on the availability of these resources.
Analysis approach:- The analysis strategy helps the organization to examine the various determinants that may obstruct or facilitate the successful introduction of fresh technology among the possible users. This may include risk assessment, business risk, technological risks and the country risk assessment. Technological risks are related to the freshness and inappropriateness of the technology acquired within a given context. The new technology thus have to be assessed to find out the likely existing risks, the magnitude of risk and the effect of those risks after adoption. Business risks results from the ever varying shift within the business context. Business risks are of various types which include risk of cost, demand risk, interest risk and exchange risk. The high cost of technology results to cost risk which makes technology to be commercially untenable. The demand, exchange and interest risk are attributed to deteriorations in business parameters within the time span amid the acquisition of technology and its implementation. The country risk is related to the profile of the country in question that acquires the fresh technology. The organizational risk is limited by the process of determining that the obtained technology is suitable to the needs of the organization. This type of risk may come due to lack of organizational capabilities to absorb and implement the obtained technology.
Technology transfer approach: This implies to the transfer or shift of knowledge through technology purchase for profitable application. This involves the process of attaining embodied and the disembodied knowledge that exists within one organization by another organization. This technology transfer takes place through patent disclosures, through personnel interaction, joint ventures, publications, R&D companies, consultants, and other research companies.
Technology diffusion and substitution:- This strategy involves the process of extending technology to other parts of the organization or across organizations. As fresh technology stretches all over the organization, there is generation of social environment. The extensive introduction of fresh technology in an organization signifies the legitimacy of technology and aids in institutionalizing the new technology within the social surrounding. The substitution represents the decline in the employment and eventual extension of technology because of replacement by a different technology. Several factors which involves both technical and non-technical affects the pace of substitution with the total time taken for substitution being dependent on the dynamics of the market.
The initiative to support better distribution of health personnel and facilities involves legislative initiative which can be employed to support greater equity in distribution. An example is the requirement for a period of compulsory service of all new medical graduates in rural or under-served regions for the purpose of enhancing accessibility of care. The service user and staff approach involves making the decision to adopt the new technology based on the views of users and staff concerning the efficiency and benefits of the technology.
The lack of comfort with and knowledge concerning computers and the internet, lacking access to computers and the internet at work and at home can limit the implementation of both e-nursing and e-learning strategies. Some of the access problems may come due to lack of suitable hardware, software, internet access, IT training including support and time from management to comply with ICT as part of nursing practice. On the other hand, the implementation can be very effective is there is comfort, skill, computers and internet as well as other relevant facilities needed (Black et al., 64).
E-learning has also failed to live up to date due to the boredom factor. It is described that there is normally nothing to do but to record, look and take multiple choice text. There are usually no instructional activities that can deeply engage the minds of learners and interaction in most cases comprise of changing from one screen to another. This also weakens the effective implementation of e-learning in healthcare nursing. In addition, learning occurs only under the right conditions.
The innovation strategy becomes more effective when there is sufficient coaching and training. Nevertheless, coaching and training are normally not sufficient in most cases during implementation of innovation which makes the strategy ineffective in such circumstances.
The planning strategy only becomes effective if the resources needed such as technology experts and finances are available. The scarcity or absence of any needed significant resource during the time of planning is likely to result to ineffective implementation of technology in an organization.
The management of information system can be effective if developed and used with a lot of care as it can become vulnerable to misuse resulting to adoption and/or destruction client information. The vulnerability situation can make it ineffective in terms of implementation. The managerial strategy can also prove to be effective if managers can serve as catalyst for change at all levels of healthcare system. Failure to serve as a catalyst of change can also make it ineffective in implementation.
Standardization and customization strategy will be effective in case there is functions available which leans on standardization and on customization. Lack of such functions may make the strategy ineffective since the organization must be aware of functions that define the needed day to day operations.
The success of development strategy depends on the competency of the existing management within the organization together with wrong choice of technology. Good competency implies better management support of technology hence effective implementation. The incompetent management along with informative selection of technology makes this strategy ineffective when it comes to implementation process and its outcome.
Cultures do affect the adoption of technology in organization. Since different organizations are likely to be affected by different cultural values, this imply that technology transfer which involves purchase of knowledge from one organization may not be effective due to different I cultures between the selling and the purchasing organization (Parthasarathy 82).
The technology diffusion and substitution also depends on several factors for its effectiveness. In the case of IT diffusion, for example, if the right diffusion model is chosen, then the implementation will be effective. The diffusion model such as TOE (technology, organization and environment) is one of the best diffusion models given that it takes into an account three most important aspects such as organization, technology and environment. These three factors are affects the process by which the given Diffusion model validates and implement the technological innovation. This also implies to saying that models that do not consider all these features may result to ineffective implementation of fresh technology.
THE MOST SUCCESSFUL STRATEGY IN HEALTHCARE NURSING
The IT diffusion strategy is the most successful given that it the majority of models originate from the diffusion of innovation theory of Rogers. In spite of some differences, every model follows a similar planning sequence in the process of introducing afresh innovation systematically for the purpose of optimizing success. As discussed above, there are several models of IT diffusion which can be selected for any innovation depending on the situation and other factors.
The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), technology acceptance model (TAM), diffusion on innovation and technology, organization and environment (TOE) are the IT diffusion models among others that are normally used in the implementation of fresh technology. Although TAM is the most commonly used model, TOE tends to be a better option given its ability to consider three factors namely technology, organization and environment. The consideration of all these factors makes simpler to analyze and be able to know in advance some of the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the technology (Street et al., 81).
First of all, the nursing staff is involved in understanding whether the technology has any relevance for the user or end users who are patients/ clients in this case and its subsequent time of development. With the help of nurses, it will help in comprehensive pilot testing on a daily basis prior to the introduction of technology. It is the standard for several clinical guidelines that technologies should be pilot implemented in daily practice. Nurses will be involved in analyzing which particular determinants play a role is significant to enhance the chance of tackling the right determinants.
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Parthasarathy, Shobita. "Building genetic medicine: Breast cancer, technology, and the comparative politics of health care." MIT Press Books 1 (2012).
Street, Richard L., William R. Gold, and Timothy R. Manning, eds. Health promotion and interactive technology: Theoretical applications and future directions. Routledge, 2013.