Literature Review On Comparison Of Quantitative And Qualitative Research
Chamberlain College of Nursing
NR 701: Application of Analytic Methods
The basis of this paper is to compare qualitative and quantitative research articles to determine how research and theory are interrelated and how they are used for nursing science.Nathan et al. (2009) article “Modern-day clinical course of type 1 diabetes mellitus after 30 years duration” and Balfe et al. (2013) study entitled “What's distressing about having type 1 diabetes? A qualitative study of young adults' perspectives” are the articles used for the comparison. Just as the title hints, the latter is a qualitative research article investigating diabetes related-distress. It finds that diabetes distress is prevalent with a section of youthful adults having Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the second stage of young adulthood. Conversely, the research article by Nathan et al. (2009) is a quantitative study that describes the present-day clinical course of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM).
Clinical treatment objectives of T1DM have evolved since the DCCT (Diabetes Control & Complications Trial) showed declined long-term with intensive therapy of diabetes. Nathan et al. (2009), in their quantitative implicit research, reiterate that there have been limited longitudinal studies to define the clinical progression of T1DM during the age of severe or intensive treatment. On the other hand, Balfe et al. (2013), in their explicit qualitative research, describe diabetes distress as a common term, which refers to the emotive anxieties, stressors, worries, burdens, and frustrations that arise from managing an intensive, complex condition such as Type 1 Diabetes. Their research aims to provide an explicit interpretation of the order, structure, and extensive patterns found amongst a group of partakers.
Sample Size and Selection
The study conducted by Balfe et al. (2013) used a qualitative approach and was performed in Ireland. The research employed a purposeful method of sampling, which is considered as the most usual kind of qualitative sampling method. The objective of this sampling technique was recruiting a sample of about 30 youthful adults with T1D, 23 to 30 years of age. As such, 32 youthful adults were recruited, and the advertisements of recruitment showed that the scheme was seeking to speak to youthful adults having T1D whose age range was between 23 and 30.
Consequently, Nathan et al. (2009), in their quantitative study, employed the DCCT, a controlled clinical trial, to perform an assessment of the long-term complications cumulative incidence. This trial system assigned the patients to intensive or conventional therapy, and comprised an EDC (Epidemiology of Diabetes Complication) study, which was an observational research of patients having T1DM.
Methods for Data Analysis
Data presentation in the qualitative study is in the form of images and words or objects. While the researchers were performing the qualitative study, what most probably appeared in their discussion and analysis are figures in the form of graphs. Nevertheless, Nathan et al. (2009), in their quantitative research and in their analysis and discussion, came up with tables that contain information in the form of statistics and numbers. The qualitative study article, Balfe et al. (2013), is mainly subjective in methodology, as it looks to comprehend human conducts and reasons governing such conduct. Conversely, the quantitative study article researchers tend to be objectively secluded from the subject matter.
Having conducted their research in Ireland, Balfe et al (2013) attribute the success of their research from the ethical acceptance or approval they gained from the study ethics panel of RCS (Royal College of Surgeons). This also applies to the quantitative research article by Nathan et al. (2009), which has received vast ethical approval from diverse regions.
Reliability and Validity
The qualitative study article is perfect for earlier stages of the study project whereas, for the latter portion of the study project, the quantitative study by Nathan et al. (2009) is greatly recommended. As such, the quantitative research article offers the researchers a plain picture of what to anticipate in their research compared to the qualitative research. This makes the quantitative research more reliable and valid for various healthcare studies and projects.
Generalizability of Findings
Balfe et al. (2013) found diabetes associated-distress to be common in a section of youthful adults with T1D in the second stage of youthful adulthood. Diabetes distress was instigated by several aspects, the most usual of which were: everyday diabetes management challenges, stigma or self-consciousness, having to battle the healthcare structure, concerns regarding the future and anxiety about pregnancy. In this qualitative research, several factors seemed to restrain distress in the sample group, including having chances to speak to healthcare experts, attending diabetes awareness programs, and joining groups of peer support. As such, the young adults had a feeling that having chances to converse with healthcare experts regarding diabetes distress must be a standard diabetes care component: this implies there were no threats to external generalizability or validity.
Consequently, Nathan et al. (2009) found that after three decades of diabetes, the accumulative incidences of nephropathy, cardiovascular disease, and proliferative retinopathy were 25%, 14%, and 50% in that order, in the DCCT traditional treatment group, and 17%, 14%, and 47%, in that order, in the EDC group. The DCCT severe therapy cohort had considerably lower accumulative incidences and less than 1% required replacement of the kidney became blind or suffered an amputation due to diabetes throughout that period.
The major aim of the qualitative study is to offer a complete, comprehensive description of the topic of research, “What's distressing about having Type 1 Diabetes? A qualitative study of young adults' perspectives.” From the foregoing, it is considered more investigative as it tries to give an in-depth explanation of diabetes distress. On the other hand, the quantitative research focuses more on classifying and counting features and crafting statistical figures and models to clarify what is seen. By reading these research articles; one realizes that some facets of residing with diabetes often distress youthful adults having T1D, who is in their 20s. Clinicians should, therefore, facilitate the attendance of young adults at diabetes awareness programs, give them chances to talk regarding their diabetes-related difficulties and frustrations and, where probable, help in the peer-support networks' development for youthful adults having diabetes.
Balfe, M., Doyle, F., Smith, D., Sreenan, S., Brugha, R., Hevey, D., & Conroy, R. (2013). What's distressing about having type 1 diabetes? A qualitative study of young adults' perspectives. BMC Endocrine Disorders, 13(1), 25–38. doi:10.1186/1472-6823-13-25.
Nathan, D. M., Zinman, B., Clearly, P. A., Backlund, J. Y., Genuth, S., Miller, R., & Orchard, T. J. (2009). Modern-day clinical course of type 1 diabetes mellitus after 30 years duration. Archives of InternalMedicine, 169(14), 1307–1316. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.193.
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