Lobbying For Talent Research Papers Examples

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Lobbying, Politics, Industry, Company, Policy, Immigration, Migration, Business

Pages: 7

Words: 1925

Published: 2021/02/23

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Introduction

Lobbying is integral to U.S. politics. Historically, different interest groups have lobbied and exercised differential pressures on consecutive U.S. Administrations for different political goals. Based on comparative industry weight and lobbying power, each lobby group has succeeded or failed to achieve set goals. The rise of lobbying groups in recent decades has been further emphasized by a set of lobbying strategies which are being shaped by lobbying groups' moves. These strategies span a broad range of moves including, but not limited to, financing political campaigns, hiring former federal officials in entities – mostly multinational giants – backing lobbying groups, or simply establishing permanent posts in K Street, Washington, D.C. As matters stand, lobbying activism is not an endeavor which remains constant over extended periods. Indeed, lobbying efforts are subject to and function of overall political ecosystem. As public elections approach, for example, conventional lobbying groups become active in engaging major political groups and parties in order to press for set agendas or develop new ones. As well, lobbying groups emerge or disappear over years.
Conventionally, lobbying groups backed by big multinationals lobbied for specific and well anticipated interests directly connected to industry of concern. In recent decades, however, borders between business and political demands have become more blurred. Indeed, lobbying business has changed from a less direct, short-range endeavor into a more sophisticated, long-range one. This is particularly applicable to IT industry. As IT businesses gained more ground in U.S. economic scene, particularly since mid-1990s when computerization of business, federal and home activities became more established, IT big players began to play a major role in lobbying efforts. The question of lobbying for IT businesses started as a mere business endeavor meant to maintain market competitive edge or attract more skilled workers from India and elsewhere (Thoppil; Jordan). However, as IT businesses expanded in size and influence, more aggressive efforts began to be in place and increasingly in additional to conventional visa quota lobbying efforts. Indeed, IT giants such as Apple, Amazon, Facebook and Google started more aggressive, anticipative lobbying efforts on K Street and in and around major U.S. focal points of political influence (Romm).
Thus, in addition to conventional lobbying players and efforts, IT businesses, comparatively new players in lobbying business, are introducing new lobbying endeavors into U.S. overall political scene. Thus, in order to further asses IT industry's lobbying efforts as an influence on current U.S. Administration, a deeper investigation into IT industry's lobbying activities is required. As well, closer insights into IT industry's engagement of different federal, congressional and political organizations and/or groups are required for a better understanding of industry's lobbying efforts and mechanisms. This paper aims, hence, to explore IT industry's influence on current U.S. Administration's policies.

Discussion

U.S. growing business needs have created a situation by which lobbying for business interests has become a mandate not only to maintain current business opportunities but also to anticipate future ones. This is particularly applicable to U.S. IT businesses whose economic clout has far exceeded national borders and developed into full-fledged anti-trust and monopoly disputes in Europe and Asia. Further, U.S. IT businesses have increasingly engaged foreign governments in order to gain a foothold in potentially lucrative markets, particularly Google's case in China. Therefore, in order to better understand U.S. IT businesses influence on current Administration's policies, lobbying mechanisms of lobbying groups – particularly IT industry – need to be placed in a broader context of immigration policies.
Notwithstanding significance of immigration in general, and temporary worker status in particular, influence of interest group has not been adequately and systematically investigated. Few empirical studies study influence of interest groups on immigration statistically (Facchini, Mayda and Mishra). Indeed, according to study, interest groups exercise substantial influence on U.S. Administration's immigration policies such as to channel policy decisions into stricter or lax immigration policies, depending on pressure applied and election calculations. Further, U.S. immigration policies appear to be influenced not by global economic dynamics which determine human and capital flows but by U.S. national policies in which, particularly for high skilled workers, major roles are played by "high tech employers, professional associations, pro and anti-immigrant organizations, and even associations of immigration lawyers" (Freeman and Hill). This is a condition which is hardly replicable in different U.S. industries in which, in contrast, demand on industry workers is subject to global, economic supply and demand requirements rather than U.S. national immigration policies. Thus, in U.S. IT industry "local" IT businesses appear to exercise a major role in shaping national immigration policies in an effective fashion.
Interestingly, existing U.S. mechanisms and balance between different industries seeking skilled, foreign workers reflect an effective political, rather than an economic one (Money and Falstrom). Put differently, by competing over available U.S. visa categories, different U.S. industries and businesses appear to manifest comparative power balance in U.S. political system rather than an effective economic process by which most qualified workers from global job marketplace are sought and retained in U.S. for, mainly, economic reasons. This is, again, a distinctive feature of U.S. IT industry which, compared to different industries, appears to invest financial clout in expanding political influence. Unsurprisingly, hence, Google's active foundation of lobbying offices in and around Washington (Romm) confirms recent endeavors by IT businesses to secure competitive advantage via political means.
Historically, U.S. employers have played major roles in social integration of immigrant labor in U.S. (Rodriguez). In fact, U.S. economy is one which, compared to world major economies, has relied significantly on immigrant labor since state foundation. Further, by relying on foreign workers – skilled or not – immigrant worker status has become increasingly over years a staple agenda issue debated over by major political parties, labor groups and human rights organizations. In response, major players have come to exercise influence on consecutive U.S. Administrations employing different mechanisms. Notably, U.S. IT industries display a set of lobbying mechanisms which reflect not only IT industry's lobbying efforts but also IT industries growing financial clout.
As noted, major IT businesses started to contemplate lobbying efforts based on each business' need. These needs, growing by expansion and financial clout, are confirmed and manifest in lobbying efforts of businesses. According to data set covering 1998 – 2006, lobbying behavior of companies reflects three important facts: (1) few companies lobby, (2) lobbying status is strongly associated with company size, and (3) lobbying status is highly persistent over time (Kerr, Lincoln and Mishra). By examining present lobbying efforts, U.S. IT companies exhibit similar patterns. That is, given size of IT industry in U.S. economy, few companies, mainly major players, lobby for political and legislative clout. The lobbying efforts are not only confined, as noted, to present, pressing issues such as patents of anti-trust disputes but also bids for potential business opportunities which might be challenged if not adequately covered by appropriate backing. Understandably, as well, lobbying endeavors are associated with company's size. As matters stand, industry giants, particularly Google, Apple, Amazon and Facebook, are major bidders in U.S. IT industry's political lobbying. This is manifest by different dynamics each company adopts. Google, for example, has recently founded a number of lobbying offices in Washington, D.C. These, Google hopes, are aimed to stay abreast of political processes in White House and Capitol Hill. Meanwhile, companies like Facebook and Amazon have opted for public, congressional hearings which "sell" each company's case to U.S. legislative body. By pursuing such endeavors, lobbying becomes, in fact, a persistent effort which is incorporated into lobbying company's strategy. Indeed, as lobbying becomes a recurring exercise in a company's pursuit of business – particularly if lobbying is meant to be a political rather than an economic one – lobbying turns from an occasional, election-based events a lobbying company plans shortly before a launch of a specific product or to protect an existing market share into sustainable effort and part of overall strategy. Predictably, incorporating political jockeying into a company's long-range strategy might be an asset as well as a liability. Probably, one notable example of political lobbying impacting negatively on a company's image is Google's lobbying in China. As Google endeavored to further expand in China's market, her lobbying efforts to engage and, in fact appease, Chinese government uncovered Google's maneuvering strategies to screen out specific search results. This foreign lobbying has, in fact, hurt Google's image in U.S and has even compromised her efforts to enhance her lobbying power in Washington, D.C. Thus, indirectly, by seeking to secure a big, foreign market, in her decidedly political lobbying, Google has not only influenced her political bargaining power but has also steered U.S. national privacy policy by further scrutinizing major IT businesses.
The case for lobbying remains a complicated and an in-progress one. Not only is lobbying a process which is not decided once and for all but is also one which shaped by a plethora of mechanisms lobbying groups undertake to achieve specific business or, increasingly, political goals. As discussed, lobbying has not only been an integral part of U.S. national policies but a major influence on U.S. consecutive Administrations. For current purposes, influence of U.S. IT industry has been an increasing force in U.S. national politics. More specifically, as U.S. IT industry has continued to expand, needs to support industry has far exceed direct business needs into political ones. Further investigations are required in order to better appreciate role of IT industry's lobbying efforts.

Conclusion

U.S. politics has a long history in lobbying endeavors by different interest groups. These endeavors have differentially influenced U.S. national policies depending on industry's size and associated political events. As lobbying endeavors began to further gain firmer foothold in U.S. political scene, more and more industries have come to exercise different political influences on U.S. Administrations. For current purposes, IT industry's influence on present Administration's policies is explored. A particular focus on increasing role of IT giants is discussed. More specifically, U.S. IT industry's major players' mechanisms of political lobbying are discussed in connection to broader immigration policies adopted by U.S. Administration.
Further, interesting patterns emerge for U.S. IT industry's lobbying efforts. By seeking political clout, backed by a substantial clout, IT companies, particularly major ones, found lobbying offices or participate in congressional hearings. These mechanisms have, differentially, secured a comparative political bargaining power for lobbying companies. As well, as companies invest in political lobbying, lobbying efforts become increasingly an integral part of a company's overall strategy as opposed to being occasional political events.
Given U.S. IT industry's recent lobbying efforts compared to different industries, lapse of adequate bargaining periods are required. Indeed, if anything, as opposed to business dynamics, political bargaining efforts are much more complex and require much longer periods since political alliances and allegiances are far more complex to form, let alone to maintain, than business ones. Notably, as well, if political lobbying by companies to gain more momentum, IT industry's efforts need to be further concerted and consolidated. By coordinating lobbying endeavors, IT industry groups are not only at better edge politically but will also be able to spread brand image damage risk. Put differently, by forming industry-based alliances, IT companies will, together, be able to form a stronger interest group but also, more significantly, will be able to spread risk of brand damage caused by federal scrutiny of specific company by which collective bargaining powers of a strong interest group disperses risks to which one company might be subjected to. Finally, given IT industry's special status in U.S. economy, industry lobbying efforts should be viewed in much different examination lights compared to conventional lobbying groups.

Works Cited

Facchini, Giovanni, Anna Maria Mayda, and Prachi Mishra. "Do interest groups affect US immigration policy?" Journal of International Economics 85.1 (2011): 114–128. ScienceDirect. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.
Freeman, P. Gary, and David K. Hill. "Disaggregating immigration policy: The politics of skilled labor recruitment in the U.S." Knowledge, Technology & Policy 19.3 (2006): 7-26. Springer Link. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.
Jordan, Miriam. "Demand for Skilled-Worker Visas Exceeds Annual Supply." The Wall Street Journal. Dow & Jones Company, 7 Apr. 2015. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.
Kerr, R. William, William F. Lincoln, and Prachi Mishra. "The Dynamics of Firm Lobbying." Working Paper 17577. November 2011. The National Bureau of Economic Research. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.
Money, Jeannette, and Dana Zartner Falstrom. "Interests and institutions in skilled migration: Comparing flows in the IT and nursing sectors in the U.S." Knowledge, Technology & Policy, 19.3 (2006): 44-63.Springer Link. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.
Rodriguez, Nestor. "“Workers Wanted” Employer Recruitment of Immigrant Labor." Work and Occupations 31.4 (2004): 453-473. Sage Journals. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.
Romm, Tony. "Tech giants get deeper into D.C. influence game." Politico. Politico LLC, 21 Jan. 2015. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.
Thoppil, Ann Dhanya. "H-1B Visas: Obama’s Visit Brings Hope for India’s Skilled Workers." The Wall Street Journal. Dow & Jones Company, 25 Jan. 2015. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.

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