Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Planning, Development, Operation, Actions, Time Management, Military, Joint, Workplace

Pages: 3

Words: 825

Published: 2020/09/11



Definition of Joint Operation Planning Process (JOPP)
Steps of Course of Action (COA) Development
Mission Analysis
COA analysis
COA Comparisons
Plan for COA Development
IV: Conclusions
V: References
The American government follows a particular doctrine in guiding its policies regarding military intervention. Otherwise known as the joint operation planning process (JOPP), the process describes the process for “conducting joint, interagency, and multinational planning activities across the full range of military operations.”
In this paper, the aim is to list the steps of the JOPP. The step determined to be the most difficult to identify by staff will be described. This description will also involve a comparison to the other steps in the JOPP.
Definition of Joint Operation Planning Process (JOPP)
The Joint Operation Planning Process (JOPP) is a mechanism that fuels multi-level planning within military operations. It is applicable for contingency plans and crisis action planning (CAP). The entire process is designed in an orderly manner, consisting of logical steps that help analyze a mission and to compare various course of action (COA) alternatives. In turn, this enables the selection of the best courses of action and the drawing of a suitable plan.
Steps of Course of Action (COA) Development
The seven-step process includes initiation, mission analysis, COA development, COA analysis and war-gaming, COA comparison, COA approval, and plan or order development. COA development is the most difficult step of the Joint Operation Planning Process.
The JOPP commences upon the recognition of a situation requiring military intervention. Normally, the President recognizes the situation. He or she then initiates planning through the decision to deploy the military to contain the situation. Presidential statements and directives form the starting point for launching a contingency plan. Military options combined with other options give the President an opportunity to respond fully with the instruments of national power. The staff at CAP perform all the initiation assessments to determine the time for the whole operation, the status of intelligence, and factors relevant to containing the situation.
Mission Analysis
Mission analysis primarily involves the understanding of the problem and the aim of the intended operation. From this point, appropriate guidance is offered to streamline the entire planning process. COA development aims at answering a number of questions, including the anticipated type of military action, the rationale for the action, persons responsible for the action, commencement of the action, place of the action, and manner of execution. COA development is quite extensive and informs the next steps of JOPP as described in the following section.

COA Analysis

Under COA analysis and war-gaming, separate analysis of each COA is undertaken. The staff executes this process under the guidance of the commander. The task is accomplished best through the listing of advantages and disadvantages of each COA. On the other hand, war-gaming offers a convenient avenue for analyzing the COAs, enabling the staff to understand all dimensions of the operational environment. Moreover, it offers insight to hidden aspects of the operational environment that could occur by surprise and pose danger.
COA Comparisons
Under COA comparison, each COA is analyzed independently based on established criteria. This stage aims to unravel the strengths and weaknesses of individual COAs. Actions are identified to overcome certain disadvantages of individual COAs. Final feasibility tests are conducted. The COA having the highest chance of success is selected and developed. COA approval then determines the best COA and recommends the same to the commander. In doing so, the staff highlight the results of analysis and war-gaming while reviewing essential information. The commander has the option of either selecting the COA or proposing an alternate COA while taking into account recommendations of staff. Ascertaining the nature of a contingency is challenging. In this sense, staff may have to present the commander with more than one valid COA for approval. The same can be reduced to one COA upon the occurrence of a crisis from which clarity surfaces.
Plan for COA Development
The last stage of JOPP is concerned with plan or order development. The commander and staff alongside supporting and subordinate stakeholders do expansion of the approved COA to a comprehensive joint operation plan.This stage involves first the development of an executable CONOPS that clearly outlines the objectives of the JFC and the manner in which the objectives will be achieved using the resources at hand. The outline details how synchronization and integration of the actions of JFCs will be conducted and phased throughout the mission. A contingency plan leads to the development of an operation plan whereas CAP leads to the development of OPORD.


In conclusion, the JOPP is a vital process of military interventions in any state. Through it, wars and combats have been staged successfully while others have lost miserably due to weaker chains of operation. The process calls for an all-round approach to execute effectively. Commanders and the entire military team have a huge task of putting things rightfully together after initiation. In as much as the JOPP is credible through testing and proof, much still needs to be done to upgrade the process.


Daniel R. Green, “Design and Joint Operation Planning.” Canadian Military Journal, 2012.
Barfoed, J. “Center of Gravity Analysis and Operation Design: Ensuring a Logical Linkage
between National Strategic Objectives, Diplomatic, Informational, Military, and Economic Instruments of Power, and the Military Campaign.” Academia, 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.academia.edu/950136/Center_of_Gravity_Analysis_and_Operational_Design_Ensuring_a_Logical_Linkage_between_National_Strategic_Objectives_Diplomatic_Informational_Military_and_Economic_Instruments_of_Power_and_the_Military_Campaign
Joint Chiefs of Staff, “Joint Operation Planning.” Defense Technical Information Centre, 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp5_0.pdf

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WePapers. (2020, September, 11) Military Planning Essays Example. Retrieved May 18, 2024, from https://www.wepapers.com/samples/military-planning-essays-example/
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Military Planning Essays Example. Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/military-planning-essays-example/. Published Sep 11, 2020. Accessed May 18, 2024.

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