P. 397 Essay Sample
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1. Family structure has changed from a mother, father, and children to alternative relationships
involving same-sex couples (possibly with marriage), no children or only a few, non-
marriage couples, and family units with individuals who are not relatives. The resistance
is due to people feeling the stereotyped family is oppressive and relationships should be
based on quality and quantified measurements.
Answer Word Count: 58
2. Marriage is important because the ability to pool resources and the structure it offers raising
children. It educates them about societal expectations. However, conflicts arise regarding
sex and gender and power delegation with possibilities of abuse; these issues lead to
stress for the individuals, family unit, and society as a whole.
Answer Word Count: 51
3. An example of conflict is when it is necessary for Mother to work as a waitress; she did not
finish high school. Money is tight, and although there are three children in the family, she
comes home to chores. The Deficit Model states her lack of education does not give her
the tools for socializing her children; her absence also contributes to the problem. The
Overload Model addresses the lack of income and resistance of the other family members
stress as the roles of family members are redefined. The Conflict-of-Interest Model
focuses on Mother’s added responsibilities with a shift in power within the family. The
Anomie Model believes families do not formally discuss the changes in structure and
responsibilities, resulting in conflict. While the Anomie Model addresses frequent lack of
communication in society today, all the models can define the family’s tension.
Answer Word Count: 154
4. Structural-functionalists state if family structure is effective, it should be retained. It focuses
on the positive. Conflict theorists focus on allowing families to exist in their preferred
stated without coercion. Feminist theorists offer solutions for women regardless of the
type of family structure. Ideas of social stratification involve hierarchy, economic
inequality, and status affecting the family structure.
Answer Word Count: 57
5. Intimate relationships are close and personal and take the forms of passionate or
companionate. Legally, marriage between a man and a woman has the highest value, but
interest in marriage is declining. Subsequently, tolerance of other relationships is
increasing as friends and family become public.
Answer Word Count: 46
6. In an exchange between two people, internet dating is possibly the most basic level.
Arranged marriages resulted in couple wedding without meeting, but internet dating
allows individuals to investigate the suitability of a potential partner without having to
speak or meet with them without an intermediary.
Answer Word Count: 46
7. Causes of divorce are a need for individualism not allowed with the partner, teen marriage,
premarital co-habitation, inadequate education, poverty, history of parental divorce,
alcohol abuse, domestic violence, drug abuse, infidelity, and mismanaged finances.
Divorce allows separation from an intolerable situation, but also places strain on the
family members as they adjust to the change. “An American Family” revealed the
process of how a family dissolves through separation and divorce and restructures.
Answer Word Count: 72
8. Domestic violence results when a need for power by a family member results in physical or
mental abuse of another member(s). Debate centralizes around the rights of a husband or
parent to abuse a family member as a means of behavior modification or defining the
relationship in the family structure. Other problems becoming apparent are globalization,
elder abuse, gender inequality, and poverty and consumption patterns.
Answer Word Count: 66p. 248
1. Society defines deviance by making it a crime through laws. Tattooing is deviant only if it is
done without the consent of the person or if the person is a minor acting without parental
permission. It is not deviant in that it is becoming a more socially acceptable form of decoration.
Answer Word Count: 51
7. Deviance is a crime only when a law is passed against it. Deviance requires the action of a
group promoting passing legislation against it. It’s a means of social control and may be
political rather than for the good of society.
Answer Word Count: 42
8. Countries pass laws to inhibit drug trade, attempt to patrol boundaries, create police forces
with technology for detection and infiltration, and develop partnerships with other
countries to share information. Drug dealers need few resources and little expertise. The
crime is easy to hide and not likely to be reported.
Answer Word Count: 50
1. Multiparty democratic systems came about in reaction to allow voters to choose between
opposing viewpoints and different societal policies. Democracy is related to bureaucracy
in that there are different offices with spheres of competence in a vertical hierarchy.
Rational-legal concepts expand the definition by stating the domination by office holders
is legal by right of law or declarations of the office.
Answer Word Count: 61
3. Pluralism addresses the interest groups competing for political influence for self-interests with
elite social bodies ultimately making decisions. Globalization affects United States
politics related to the military and how government officials respond to exterior threats to
the country. Capitalism is depicted as upper class domination of the working class;
socialism and communism tout control of the economy and government collectively
rather than the populace voting to put individuals in control. Welfare states have powerful
programs for social welfare but wish to operate their economic markets equitably. In the
US, opponents to social welfare systems attack officials wishing to expand them.
Answer Word Count: 100
10. The amount of time available for leisure depends on social class. Many leisure activities
require some degree of expense and they all demand available time away from other
responsibilities. The amount and type of leisure available is related to the system of
stratification because income, status, and power influence it.
Answer Word Count: 50
3. Barriers to migration in the past were limitations in transportation. Today, barriers are legal
access into countries. Push and pull factors entice immigrants to a better life away from
poor opportunities at home. These have changed in the global age as populations flee
violence from religious or racist factions.
Answer Word Count: 49
4. Opponents to international migration restrictions state it positively affects the economy,
contribute to greater democracy, and allows people to realize their human rights. Current
debate on legalizing immigrants centers on their use of government health and education
programs while not paying taxes. Illegal immigrants also work for less than minimum
wage at jobs many legal Americans prefer not to do. Legalizing immigrants also opens a
entire body of voters responding to culturally different issues.
Answer Word Count: 74
5. Cities promote a sense of unacceptable acceptance, which allows more freedom that smaller
towns because value is always based on cost. This is true to a certain degree, but
education and cultural advantages available in larger cities prompt spiritual changes in
some people. Money does not buy everything.
Answer Word Count: 48
Ritzer, George. Introduction To Sociology. 2nd ed. Canada: Sage Publications, 2015. Print.
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