Debate On Globalization Essays Example
The rise in globalization has transformed the entire trends in markets, economy, politics, technology, and cultures. These transformations have led the discussions in the economic and political debates. As the world is growing, it is also being more connected. The free international trade policies and an internet have majorly helped the world largely, giving rise to globalization and turning the isolated world into an integrated one. Globalization is making long-term changes towards international cooperation in politics, economics, cultural values, ideas, and the exchange of knowledge. These changes have greatly affected the communities, individuals, businesses, and governments in different countries. Mostly people foresee these changes as a positive impact; however, there are groups of thoughts, who believe globalization as a negative stimulator. However, the views of people regarding globalization largely depends on the priorities of the nations.
It is usually believed that the globalization was introduced after the advent of an internet and advances in technology. However, it is an old concept, which most of the countries are following since ages and engaged in international trade and cultural exchange. For example, the Silk Road that was built from Europe to East Asia paved the ways for nations to trade with each other. Similarly, in 20th century road vehicles and airlines made international trades and exchanges far easier and speeded up the process. Inventions in digital communications that is internet further improved the communication and exchange between the nations. Until then, the movement of capital, trades, and foreign investments were largely increased. These trends resulted in the growth of multinational as well as small businesses.
Globalization has become a necessary medium for the worldwide or multinational corporations to move towards the growth. It has made possible great innovations in technology and provided interdependence to people all over the world in areas of trade, travel, communications, and political policies. However, on the other side, it is giving rise to certain negative issues that must be considered as well like cultural changes, economic issues, and political changes. This paper will discuss the positive and negative views of different group of thoughts and conclude with the value of globalization for the world.
Debate on Globalization: For and Against Views
In 1999, during the meetings at the World Trade Organizations in Seattle, protests were made against the free trade polices by more than 50,000 people for several days. Opponents of globalization perceived the trade practices and policies sanctioned by WTO as unfair. They argued that the free trade policies are only supporting the rich countries and large corporations; however, the policies were drawing poor countries towards even more poverty. They also raised the argument that these policies are causing environmental damage, creating inequality, and affecting the local culture of especially the less developed and poor countries. It was argued that the global trade expansion creates unfair exchanges between the smaller and larger economies. Developed countries or economies capture more value as they have an access to financial power advantages. Other concerns highlighted by the opponents are decreased food safety, increased consumerism, and unethical labor practices. However, the primary complication of globalization includes the power imbalance between the countries with unequal amounts of wealth.
In response, the supporters of globalization discharged those claims, and argued that free trade policies open up the growth opportunities. They debated that by removing tariffs and other trade barriers, more capital and production would be allocated. The lower prices due to increased production and competition would in fact provide consumers, a bigger range of choices of products. Furthermore, it will improve the efficiency and economic growth in general, and increase capital investments in developing countries. The income levels and standard of living will be improved in those countries that are open to free trade. Free trade and globalization supporters argued that, WTO is not been unfair to poor countries, but providing greater opportunities to its 150 member countries to develop and improve the standard of living. According to statistics, based on the GDP growth rates per capita, developing countries have become wealthier, since the growth in globalization trends. Until 1960s, when economies were un-globalized, the annual growth rate was 1.4%. However, later on, it increased up to 4.7%. In 1990s, the relationship between the GDP and globalization was observed; it was seen that the annual growth rate of developing countries rose up to 5.0%. However, those developed economies that had globalization since long time showed only 2.2% growth rate. This relationship shows that globalization executes benefits to international trade, standards of living, and economic development .
A group of people against the globalization argues that, it is the root cause of export of western culture around the world. As like now, multinational organizations are spread all over the globe; wherever you go in the world, you will find Coca-Cola or McDonalds. The pop culture and western media has also been exported to every country of the world. The diversification of culture around the world is lost due to free trade and globalized media. The countries are gradually losing the importance of their religious and cultural values, and liberalism is being induced. In addition, the group of thoughts against the globalization argues that it has negatively influenced cultural diversity. It has given rise to exploitation of markets, workers, and societal values. The increased availability of foreign goods, services, and media are drowning out the cultural values of certain nations. Globalization is promoting homogenous set of beliefs and values and this evading individualism and cultural identity. E learning and other computer-mediated technologies are inducing western market trends in other nations. The curriculum in the e-learning courses is designed as according to the dominant culture and thus, the other cultures adopt the trends in education and society accordingly. Similarly, the global access to information is gradually eliminating the differences in the cultural values and giving rise to one cultural environment around the world .
The other group views globalization as the route towards the global age. They argue that the globalization is turning the world into single market. It will give rise to global practices, technologies, and values, ending the trend of nation-state. However, the religions and governments will be retained with their distinct strengths in the age of integrated world even, but offering freedom to businesses as well as customers. The businesses will easily be able to supply their ideas and products available all over the world. Furthermore, this breaking down of trade and cultural barriers would resolve tensions between the rivals and convince them to join hands for the growth of their countries. They will be able to import new trends in technology and innovation in their culture and enable people to compete with the rest of the world. Furthermore, the increase in globalization trends also giving rise to political philosophies. The increase in global trade improves the standard of living, political stability, and increase technological progress, job opportunities, and equality of different countries. The quality of life would be improved, as the citizens would have more options of global goods, ideas, and services. In addition, citizens would be able to avail many other services in different areas, like
Availability of more opportunities for tourism and international trade,
Access to economical external financing options for home loans and cars,
Greater consumption of global entertainment like sports, music, pop culture, and fads,
More opportunities to work in any foreign country due to lenient immigration laws and foreign worker programs
Large availability of consumer products like clothing brands, accessories, and food items in other countries.
As discussed earlier, globalization helps in increasing the availability of diverse services, products, and technology around the world. Domestic economies are expanding and exchanging large number of goods and services and thus, benefiting through medical and technological developments. Now, it is possible to drink Italian wine while being in Spain and eat French cheese in China. Globalization provides the best of world’s products and services reach the customers in every country and thus, improving the standards of living through quality and efficiency. The technological and medical advancements are helping the developing countries where there are fewer opportunities of research and developments. The treatments, medicines, and innovations are exchanged between the countries to fight together with the diseases and technological issues around the world .
Another concern of the globalization opponents argues that it is causing environmental pollution and damage. Increased international trade has given rise to higher energy levels consumption. Water pollution and air pollution are increasing due to factory wastes, shipping, deforestation, overpopulation, and climatic change. Increasing industrial development of economies and global consumption is giving rise to depletion of energy and resources, and production of more pollution. It has been observed through the statistics that consumption of natural resources including oil, natural gas, coal, renewables, and nuclear resources have been increased in the last ten years and it is expected to further increase in future.
In response to the criticism of globalization regarding the environmental pollution, the group of supporters argues that globalization is also opening up ways for different countries in gaining comparative advantages. For example, Brazil has a rich agricultural environment. Its fertile land and favorable environment provides an opportunity to earn profits by production of surplus food and export to different countries. This export of food items would not only help Brazil, but also other countries. They do not require purchasing equipment and creating ideal environment for the production of food, but can import goods; thus, reducing the effect of artificial production plant on the environment. Similarly, India’s liberal investment regulations and education infrastructure give it an advantage in technological expertise and development. They can export expertise and bring investments in the country; thus, providing more opportunities to the experts all over the world. This all would have not been possible without advancements in globalization through free trade and internet. Moreover, the increases in pollution can be controlled through various techniques, technological advancements, and usage of environmental friendly resources.
These criticisms on globalization exhibit significant concerns posed due to expansion of international trade. It is important to mitigate the consequences of resources, wage inequality, and capital that are affecting the ethical global economic environment. There is a need to minimize damages to environment due to globalization through introducing green strategies and by protection of cultural integrity. If these concerns are controlled then globalization will create great imbalance in its pros and cons. The supporters would have much weight in their claims as compared to opponents. In comparison to the criticisms to globalization, plenty of points goes in its favor. Globalization is not only taking the world towards modernism, but also facilitating the people around the world in terms of medication, technology, opportunities, and other advancements. In addition, the globalization is providing benefits on the national level. The growth in GDP, empowerment in political systems, and investments are the primary benefits of globalization. Comparing the pros and cons of globalization discussed above, it can be concluded that globalization has impacts that are more positive and of higher value for the world as compared to negative points. Furthermore, the negative impacts are the ones that can be controlled to major extent by the governments and organizations. Currently, most of the multinational and larger organizations are participating in contribution towards green environment. Moreover, governments are taking actions to preserve the cultural values and religious limits through different programs. Therefore, globalization must be promoted to avail its innumerable benefits while controlling its negative aspects.
Balko, R. (2003, April). Globalization and Culture. Retrieved from GPF: https://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/162/27607.html
Gibson, N. (2014, March 26). Pros and Cons of Globalization: Controversy and Discussion. Retrieved from Udemy Blog: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCcQFjAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.udemy.com%2Fblog%2Fpros-and-cons-of-globalization%2F&ei=eFHJVLO3C4nZarPKgsAK&usg=AFQjCNFnTmN5-eZVggonsOz-SC3fzGaMjQ&sig2=c14M7afx2726_x8KZYc
Ravallion, M. (2003). The Debate on Globalization, Poverty, and Inequality: Why Measurement Matters. Development Research Group.
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