Education: Providing Proper Academic Supports Research Proposal

Type of paper: Research Proposal

Topic: Hearing, Students, Deaf, Hearing Loss, Study, Performance, Information, Methodology

Pages: 8

Words: 2200

Published: 2021/03/02

for students with unilateral hearing loss

Problem Statement

List of research questions
Hypothesis
Methodology
Research design
Population
Sample
Instrument
Data collection procedures
Data analysis
Conclusion
Abstract
This proposal concerns a desire to investigate children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL), which is defined as deafness in one ear while having normal hearing levels in the other ear. A lavish literature reviewed preceding the actual methodology facilitates understanding the relationship between students with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) and the effects on their academic performance. This section 2 of the proposal elaborates upon relevant measures this researcher will use in establishing a relation between two main variables unilateral hearing loss and academic performance.
Keywords: unilateral hearing loss, students, educational programs, educators, teachers, academic performance

For students with unilateral hearing loss

Introduction
A research proposal is a scientific document providing details pertaining to how the investigation into a phenomenon would be conducted. Essentially, a research proposal is not a scientific article even though it may include preliminary results of previous studies. Often it includes an extensive literature review, which facilitates establishment of variables and their relationships within their study. A relevant literature review also forms the theoretical framework through which the researcher validates assumptions derived from the data collection process (Talinbe Abdulai & Anthony Owusu-Ansah, 2014). This section of the research proposal pertains to investigating and recommending proper academic support for students with unilateral hearing loss. Consequently, it encompasses first a restatement of the problem statement.
Next a list of research questions will be presented. The hypothesis will be designed and methodology explained. The methodology involves precise illustrations showing applicability of the chosen research design for the study, which includes a full description of the population, sample, instrument/s data collection procedures and analysis. A research a proposal also reflects some of the researchers’ goals and expected outcomes. This research proposal specifically desires to investigate unilateral hearing loss with particular emphasis on steps that can be taken to better accommodate students affected by this abnormality.
Historically, unilateral hearing loss within the educational disciple was considered to have very little effect on academic performance. Importantly, there were few research studies done on the issue. However, recent development reveals that language and speech skills were influenced by unilateral gearing loss. Ultimately, behavioral and academic discrepancies occurred when compared to children having normal hearing levels bilaterally. It was also discovered that school age children, especially, are mostly challenged in their classroom performance due to this disability (Kupplera, Lewis & Evans, 2013).
Significantly, special education strategies are now required in keeping them abreast in academic performance with their peers who have normal hearing skills. The ultimate outcome leads to other behavior maladjustments experienced in their behavior within a regular classroom setting. Therefore, the burning desire of this researcher is to investigate how twenty-first century educators can make a vital contribution towards establishing first the relationship between unilateral hearing loss and academic performance, then exploring other variables that emerge influencing unilateral hearing loss and learning behavior outcomes.
For example, language and speech delays are apparent among students with unilateral hearing loss. Medical science supports this theory (Friedman, 2013). Until now there is still limited research in education pertaining to the challenges of students with unilateral hearing loss and their academic outcomes. Consequently, the goal of this research proposal and ultimately research project is to establish relationships through scientific evaluations between students with unilateral between hearing and those with normal hearing with regards to their academic performance/attainment.
Problem Statement
The problem guiding this study as established through literature relates that unilateral hearing loss in students could lead to delays in speech and language development. They can also encounter difficulty localizing sound. They can also develop anxiety; low self-esteem becoming easily agitated due to communication challenges or easily distracted. A student with single sided deafness encounters disturbances performing at same grade level with their peers. It is clear that have unequal access to the information due to hearing disability in order to show similar achievement. In describing the difference between a normal student and one who is audibly impaired analysts stated that the disabled student has mono listening opportunities while the normal student a stereo sound coverage (McCreery, 2014).
Kuppler, Lewis, & Evans (2013) asked a hearing impaired student how it felt to sit in a mainstream class and she described it as a very difficult experience explaining that she left out a never understanding what the teacher was saying as well as the lesson being discussed in classs. Further, she identified that only limited portions of the conversations were heard much more understood. As such, all communication had to be interpreted through lip reading in which the student was not proficient. This was a sure indication that students with unilateral hearing difficulties do have serious difficulties functioning in a normal classroom setting. Therefore, the researchers concluded unilateral hearing loss is detrimental to the academic success in student affected by the condition. Effects encompass not only auditory effects such as difficulty hearing in noise, but also self-esteem and exhaustion (Kuppler et.al, 2013) A study by the British Acoustic Neuroma Association shows that once hit with UHL, Patients had 100% more problems in the workplace and one third of them were forced to quit the job. Eventually fifty percent of patients under study admitted that they had to leave their studies. Nearly 100% of patients with UHL admitted that they are not able to study and understand anything in class anymore and try to avoid it because of social pressure (Fischer & Judith Lieu. 2014). Educators and administration are not properly accommodating students with UHL to provide them with equal access to their academic environment.
List of research questions

In what ways does unilateral hearing loss in students affect their academic performance?

What academic difficulties if any are encountered by students with unilateral hearing loss?
Are there resources available to facilitate classroom education for students with unilateral hearing?
Hypothesis

Unilateral hearing loss in students greatly affects their academic performance level in relation to students with normal hearing

Methodology
According to Howell (2013) Methodology is an organized, scientific theoretical approach adapted by a researcher to investigate a particular phenomenon. Essentially, It consists of knowledge such as social sciences, medicine and natural science. Often methodology also encompasses concepts like phrases, paradigms, qualitative or quantitative. Importantly, the focus is on theoretical foundations required for understanding the most appropriate set of methods or method to conduct a particular. Scientifically, it can be interpreted as selecting the best practice for conducting a research (Howell, 2013).
For example, this research is from an educational paradigm. Therefore, the method or set of methods applied must coincide with a relevant methodology consistent with educational research designs. It must be understood that methodology is not a method in itself. Precisely, methodology can be further described as an analysis pertaining to principles postulates and rules consistent with ways of conducting research within a certain discipline such as education. More so scientists have defined methodology as distinct patterns of study developed among disciplines as well as the description of methods (Howell, 2013).
The research methodology adopted for this study encompasses a mixed method. This method is also referred to as multimethodology meaning that it offers opportunities of utilizing more than one data collection technique. For example, in a study such as the one being undertaken in this study whereby the researcher desires to provide proper academic support for students with unilateral hearing loss by asking the questions :-

In what ways does unilateral hearing loss in students affect their academic performance?

What academic difficulties if any are encountered by students with unilateral hearing loss?
Are there resources available to facilitate classroom education for students with unilateral hearing? A mixed method is very appropriate in proving the hypothesis; unilateral hearing loss in students greatly affects their academic performance level in relation to students with normal hearing.
More extensively, mixed methods employ both quantitative and qualitative methods. A qualitative method is exploratory in nature and seeks to analyze data utilizing a theoretical approach. Alternatively, a quantitative method offers more scope for establishing internal and external validity as well as reliably because statistical interpretation is applied to the data analysis process. Merging these two methods in any research project strengthens the credibility as well as generality potential of results and conclusions drawn at the end of the study. Precisely, each of these methods has their limitations when used individually (Johnson & Christensen, 2014). Therefore, combining them in a mixed approach for this investigation adds value to the study, especially, since they are few research projects that have been conducted on this subject. Besides, mixed methods have their immense significance in adding tremendous reliability in educational research studies.
Research design
The research design selected for conducting this study must be relevant to educational research. According to Creswell (2012) a research design offers the blue print whereby the researcher will conduct the desired study. Specifically, a research design defines the type of study. Types of designs include descriptive, correlational, semi experimental, meta- analytic and review (Creswell, 2012). This study will take the form of a descriptive design. Importantly, descriptive designs describe a phenomenon. While it is mostly adapted in the social sciences descriptive designs can be very effective, especially, when investigating the impact of unilateral hearing loss on academic performance. It allows for identifying details embodying the phenomenon that ultimately can provide proper educational adaptations for the abnormality to enhance academic performance among affected students.
Arguments have been that this design does not fit neatly into qualitative/ quantitative methodology. However, researchers have successfully utilized this design in numerous studies. A descriptive design facilitates perfect visualization of the problem offering authentic interpretations when data is analyzed. Precisely, it gives the scope for application of descriptive statistics, answering the question what instead of why showing cause and effect as when inferential statistics are utilized in correlational designs (Morgan, 2014). In this study three questions are asked requiring answers to ‘what.’
Significantly, as it pertains to this investigation a descriptive design has the uniqueness of allowing manipulation of a number of variables in determining the ‘what’ of unilateral hearing loss that affects academic performance. Other designs are limited to one or a single variable. Ultimately, descriptive offers opportunities for reporting summary data related to mean median, measures of central tendency inclusive deviance from the mean, correlation between variables percentages and variation ((Morgan, 2014).
Population
The population for this study will consist of students with unilateral hearing loss and educators/teachers of students with unilateral hearing loss.
Sample
Representative samples from both students and educators/teachers populations will be drawn using the purposive sampling technique. Purposive sampling is a type of non- probability sampling method whereby the researcher selects a subset of the population applicable to the study which reflects the quality of the desired population. Students between the ages of 10 -15 wil be selected and educators/teachers who have been interacting with them for more than five years will be eligible for inclusion. It could be considered handpicking persons eligible for the investigation who meet the inclusion criterion. It is also selected for convenience since probability sampling techniques are costly and no not easy for individual searchers to access. Besides, in this study subjects are selected due to a distinct characteristic of unilateral hearing loss and educators/ teachers of students affected by the condition (Guest, 2013).
Instrument
Two instruments will be designed for this study, a questionnaire and an interviewing schedule. The interviewing schedule will be administered to students with unilateral hearing loss who are enrolled in a regular school program receiving instructions alongside other students with normal hearing abilities. The questionnaire will be filled by the sample of educators/teachers who have been integrating with them for a period of no less than one year, but were exposed to teaching unilateral hearing loss students in a mixed class environment. Items on both the interviewing schedule and questionnaire will be pretested on a sample of similar respondent in establishing reliability and validity of the instrument. Items will be carefully selected reflecting answers to questions posed in the research as well as clarification of the hypothesis.
Data collection procedures
Data collection procedures for this study will encompass recruiting volunteers to train educators/teachers administering the interview to students with unilateral hearing loss. Questionnaires for educators/teachers will be made available on line through monkey survey technology. A link will be sent to the educators/teachers selected and they will be instructed to fill out questionnaires online. However, prior permission will be acquired from relevant authorities regarding conduct of the research as well as administering interviews and questionnaires. Also, a request asking the sample to participate in the study will be sent out via an email post.
Data analysis
Survey monkey website is equipped with relevant software that facilities data analysis in mixed method studies in which a descriptive design has been adapted. To analyze data derived from interviews the SPSS software, specially, designed for students or persons not proficient in conducting statistical interpretation of will be the tool used for understanding responses tendered through interviewing schedule instrument.
Conclusion
This proposal outlined an investigation into providing proper academic support for students with unilateral hearing loss. The problem statement was perceived as being children affected with unilateral hearing do not receive any special consideration in education and experience difficulties keeping abreast with normal hearing students in the same class. Consequently, a list of research questions were tendered along with a hypothesis stating that unilateral hearing loss in students greatly affect their academic performance level in relation to students with normal hearing.
The methodology selected was a mixed method applying both quantitative and qualitative techniques. A descriptive research design will be used to conduct the study, which is compatible with the selected methodology. The population would consist of students with unilateral hearing loss and educators/teachers who interact with them during classroom instruction. A purposive sample will be drawn from this population. Interviews and survey are the specific instruments that will be used for data collection procedures. Further, data analysis will be facilitated by survey monkey software and SPSS.

Reference

Creswell, W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative
and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Fischer, C., & Judith Lieu. (2014). Unilateral hearing loss is associated with a negative effect on
language scores in adolescents. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology,
1611-1617.
Friedman, A. (2013). Risk analysis of unilateral severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss in children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 1128-1131.
Guest, G. (2013). Describing mixed methods research: An alternative to typologies. Journal of
Mixed Methods Research, 7, 141-151.
Howell, K. (2013) Introduction to the Philosophy of Methodology. London: Sage Publications
Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2014). Educational research: quantitative, qualitative, and
mixed approaches (5th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage
Kupplera, K. Lewisb, M.., & Evans, A. (2013). A review of unilateral hearing loss and academic
performance: Is it time to reassess traditional dogmata? International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 617-622.
McCreery, R. (2014). Approaching Unilateral Hearing Loss from Both Sides. Hearing
Morgan, D. (2014). Integrating qualitative & quantitative methods: A pragmatic approach.
Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Talinbe Abdulai, R., & Anthony Owusu-Ansah. A. (2014). Essential Ingredients of a Good
Sage Journals.

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