Ethical Topic: Hacking Research Papers Examples
Hacking is described as the processed used to penetrate a private computer system to access the information and knowledge stored in the system (EH-Net Online Mag, 2005). Hackers are noted to expand their knowledge and open their mind to the study of Information and Communication Technology. The media is noted to glorify the identity of hackers and; consequently, there has been a rising demand to change the identity of those that destroy data having an illegal intent as crackers. However, it is integral to consider the people that lose their intellectual capital resulting from hacking. The ethical dilemma surrounding hacking regards the private and public regulation of information and the motivation behind hacking (Computerweekly.com, 2015). In this study, the author explores the ethical issues confronting the society during the current cyber age.
Currently, the ethical dilemma associated with hacking includes cryptography against the right of the society to security, posting offensive information and on the contrary freedom of speech and the control of information in private versus public. These issues are noted to increase in relevance, particularly in the modern age. The interconnection of computers via various network infrastructure has increased the access and approachability of information (Computerweekly.com, 2015; EH-Net Online Mag, 2005). The society is increasingly identified as an information society, and the age is referred to as cyber age. However, there are numerous ethical issues immerging from the nature of information.
The changes in technology are noted to overshadow ethical improvement; hence there is an emergence of an ethical vacuum. There are an increasing number and range of computer crimes that are performed by honest and respectable individuals thus leading to the emergence of ethical issues. There is a variety of social issues that are noted to be associated with hacking. These include the introduction of viruses, cybercrimes, the harmful impacts of the information on children and the right to privacy (About.com Tech, 2015). There exist many technological solutions to the problems including the development of IPV6, Intrusion Detection Protocol that allow the administrator to monitor the address of the suspected hacker. The solutions to hacking are noted to be ineffective. For this reason, the emergence of social problems leads to the development of ethical issues. Hence, it is difficult to forecast the impact of unethical actions in a technologically dynamic environment.
The prominent ethical issue in hacking defines the prevention of privacy. There is a demand for the revelation of personal information to others including the activity of an individual over a network. Users in a network are observed to contribute information to a network that is stored in different databases (EH-Net Online Mag, 2005). The ultimate cost of the invasion of privacy is the destruction or deterioration of relationships due to the revelation of information about the users in a network from the data that is collected. Anonymity and depersonalization boost the sense of the impact of the ethical responsibility of protection of privacy to the user (The Daily Dot, 2015); consequently, hackers are prompted to participate in informal activities.
Secondly, ethical issues are closely defined by misinformation and inaccurate reporting, which can lead to the disruption and misjudgment of the users of information technology. It is noted that people may lose favor with parties in positions of power and authority; hence, the user of the network may be noted to have a declined favor from the people in positions of authority. As a result, network administrators are demanded to take precautions in preventing the corruption of information, particularly information that is applied to the determination of appropriate decisions (The Daily Dot, 2015). It is the responsibility of the network administrators and the user to ensure the accuracy of the information that is transmitted over the network. Currently, there is a production of an enormous amount of information about numerous people connected to the network leading to the corruption of the information stored and transmitted over the network. In addition, it leads to the emergence of another issue that aims at determining the ownership of the information stored in a network (Ethics.csc.ncsu.edu, 2015). It leads to the question, who is responsible for the information? The virtual nature of most networks enables the intrusion and ejection of hackers leaving no evidence or technological footprints.
One of the primary and complicated issue in the society is described by the intellectual property rights. There are encryptions, copyrights, oaths of confidentiality, patents and individual values such as loyalty and trustworthiness that are identified as the primary safeguards of the information and privacy rights (Computerweekly.com, 2015). However, there is an emergence of problems regarding the protection of intellectual property. For instance, there is an increased adoption of artificial intelligence that infers the extraction of knowledge that is programmed to create a computer software; hence, leading to the creation of economic and capital value. The process of the dissemination of information and knowledge from people and programming it into computer hardware and software defines the transfer of property from the individual to the AI system. Is it warranted to transfer information in that manner?
Finally, it is observed that individuals are demanded to possess intellectual skills to handle information effectively. The intellectual skills define writing, reading, calculating and critical thinking. The skills are bound to be imparted by education. Therefore, there is the creation of collection of people with information poverty that lack a direct link to the efficient information and communication technology due to insufficient training on the use of the technology (Computerweekly.com, 2015). Hackers can justify their actions due to their lack of understanding of the implications of their actions.
The access to databases is only attained through the acquisition of a terminal and personal computer. For instance, obtaining any significant article demands access to photoelectric cells, terminally integrated circuits, vacuum tubes and photoelectric cells. These create the technological production of the scientific theory. Therefore, people that wish to access information are demanded to have a variety of equipment including the knowledge of the existence of the database and how to access it. Additionally, people should have the technology required to access the database including the fees demanded to pay for internet data. Hence, there is an exclusion of people that are unwilling or unable to access the required resources. Consequently, there is an emergence of information exclusions leading to the development of numerous social problems.
The integral question that emerges from the discussion is the query of the appropriate manner of dealing with intellectual property. There is a demand for differentiation of the ethical standards applied in dealing with both computers and humanity. In addition, the depersonalization of information technology enables the anonymity of hackers. Information and Communication Technology is noted to divert the users leading to the lack of responsibility towards each other. Therefore, there is a separation of morals and the actions over the network. As a result, there is a need to find the right balance to find a viable solution to the ethical issues surrounding hacking.
About.com Tech,. (2015). What Exactly Is a 'Hacker'? What Do Hackers Do?. Retrieved 9 February 2015, from http://netforbeginners.about.com/od/trollsandtrolling/fl/What-Exactly-Is-a-Hacker-What-Do-Hackers-Do.htm
Computerweekly.com,. (2015). ComputerWeekly.com. Retrieved 9 February 2015, from http://www.computerweekly.com/search/query?start=0&filter=1&q=Hacking
Hacking poses threats to business. Retrieved 9 February 2015, from http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/Hacking-poses-threats-to-business
EH-Net Online Mag,. (2005). Hacking For Dummies: Ch 1 - Intro to Ethical Hacking - EH-Net Online Mag. Retrieved 9 February 2015, from https://www.ethicalhacker.net/features/book-reviews/hacking-for-dummies-ch-1-intro-to-ethical-hacking
Ethics.csc.ncsu.edu,. (2015). Hacking. Retrieved 9 February 2015, from https://ethics.csc.ncsu.edu/abuse/hacking/study.php
The Daily Dot,. (2015). The 7 biggest lies you've been told about hacking. Retrieved 9 February 2015, from http://www.dailydot.com/opinion/biggest-lies-hacking-myths-debunked/?utm_content=The%207%20biggest%20lies%20you%27ve%20been%20told%20about%20hacking&utm_medium=syndication&utm_source=Time&utm_name=time%20syndication
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