# Example Of Case Study On The Meaning (Definitions) Of The Notions Involved In It

Type of paper: Case Study

Topic: Theory, Equality, Civil Rights, Democracy, Model, Logic, Relationships, Equation

Pages: 5

Words: 1375

Published: 2020/10/10

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As opposed to traditional mathematical models and equations, the equality free model theory is aimed at examining mathematical formulas that do not have equalities based on algebra logic. This can also be referred to as first order logic without equality. In the language, there are two structures. We can interpret these structures in an alternative manner in first order logic. When this structure is used, the term normal model is used to refer to two individuals that exist. If these two items A,* and B* are present and they do not satisfy the equation A,* ≅B* , the term normal model is used. This differs with first order logic with equality where there must be two individuals in the equation that satisfy the equation A,* ≅B* , when defining equality in a theory, there are important things to consider. Such formulas find use mainly in computer logic, logic programming, and artificial intelligence.

In order to make formulas clear and easily understandable different notations have to be used to express theorems. The table below shows the different notations used in equality free model theories.

## The notations that are used in the theory have been elaborated in the table below.

A formula may not have symbols but can be made up of relations. It is then possible to derive equality from these relations. For example, if a theory has two terms x and y but no function symbols, equality can be derived using the relations between the two terms. For example, x can be said to be equal to y if replacing x with y in any formula does not change the relations between the two in any argument that can be derived from the equation. The equality free model theory is a first order logic language. First order logic uses quantifiable variables as opposed to objects, which would not be logical in almost all instances.

## How it is proved, mentioning (not proving) any previous result that is used in the proof

Theorem 1.22 states that

For any two L structures A, and B, the following conditions are equivalent,

The theory above leads to the relativeness relation in model theory. This is mainly because of the relation to have isomorphic reductions which leads to a subjective and strict homomorphism between A, and B, . The theory has been derived from homomorphisms and strict homomorphisms. LEMMA 1.2 also provides an excellent definition of isomorphism in relation to strict homomorphisms. COROLLARY 1.6 is also used in the derivation of the theorem since it provides a definition of surjective homomorphism A,* and B* where both satisfy a similar equality free statement. LEMMA 1.8 also provides strict congruence of ordered sets. Theorem 1.11 (the first isomorphism theorem) is also part of the theory’s proof. Lastly, PROPOSITION 1.17 and COROLLARY 1.20 is also a part of the proof of the theory.

## The meaning of the theorem itself

If these two items A,* and B* are present and they do not satisfy the equation A,* ≅B* , the term normal model is used. This differs with first order logic with equality where there must be two individuals in the equation that satisfy the equation A,* ≅B*, when defining equality in a theory, there are important things to consider. If a formula, say A(x, y) satisfies both reflexivity and Leibniz’s law, the equation is considered to have equality. If the equation does not satisfy these two conditions, it is considered equality free. The formula does not have to state the items in its formula expressly. The equality can be derived from the formula using theorems.

For example, a formula may not have symbols but can be made up of relations. It is then possible to derive equality from these relations. For example, if a theory has two terms x and y but no function symbols, equality can be derived using the relations between the two terms. For example, x can be said to be equal to y if replacing x with y in any formula does not change the relations between the two in any argument that can be derived from the equation. The equality free model theory is a first order logic language. First order logic uses quantifiable variables as opposed to objects, which would not be logical in almost all instances.

The equality free model is used in order to replace these objects with variables that can be quantified, which makes deriving relationships between the objects easier. This is especially helpful when dealing with a large number of objects where it is not possible to test each model for every item. The equality free model allows the easy derivation of relationships between different non-logical objects. The equality free model is usually used to derive higher order theories where the use of the equality relationship in objects (usually natural numbers) is omitted. The equality free theory is first order logic and has been used to derive many higher order theories. Although it is possible to decide whether any given statement in the equality free model is true or false, the decidability is limited. The formula can only be decided up to a certain limit.

## How it is used in further theorem(s).

The equality free model has been used in the Lowenheim-Skolen theorem. It is impossible to categorize infinite structures using first order logic. The equality free theorem is expounded and the Lowenheim-Skolem theorem is derived. Since it is impossible to use the equality free model to categorize infinite items because it is first order logic, higher order logic is derived from it. From this theory, it is clear that if a theory has an infinite model that is greater or equal to lamda.

The compactness theorem has also been derived from first order logic and subsequently the equality free theorem. This theorem states that first order logic sentences satisfy a given model if every complete subset of the first order logic sentence has a model. When the equality free formula is broken down, the overall model of the whole formula can be derived from the model of the subsets that make up the formula. For example, an equality free equation can be broken down into the various relationships that have made it possible to determine that the equation is equality free. The model of the complete subsets of the equation where the relationships exist can then be examined. If each of the subsets satisfies the equality free model, the whole equation can then be said to follow the model of the subsets.

## Work Cited

Bürckert, H.-J. (2011). A resolution principle for a logic with restricted quantifiers. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

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