Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Middle East, Iraq, Politics, Countries, Army, Armed Forces, War, Government

Pages: 5

Words: 1375

Published: 2020/12/26

HIS 247

Gulf War
In the Middle East, the countries of the Persian Gulf have maintained a friendly relationship for decades. The gulf countries are Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates. These countries united under a system called The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf on May 25, 1981. The Middle East is divided by a tribal system that separates the gulf countries from other Arab countries. In the 1980s, the Middle East was consumed by the Iraq-Iran war, until the war ended on August 20, 1988. Kuwait and Saudi Arabia border Iraq to the south. While Iraq was occupied with the war against Iran, Iraq's government accused its neighbor Kuwait of stealing the oil from the oilfields on the Kuwait-Iraq border. Interestingly, Kuwait and the other gulf countries were allies to Iraq during the Iraq-Iran conflict. On August 2, 1990, the Iraqi president Saddam Hussein ordered an invasion of Kuwait. The Kuwait-Iraq war shocked people around the world, due to Kuwait's previous alliance with Iraq. The American government intervened in what we know today as Operation Desert Storm. To this day, the people of the Middle East are in disbelief about Saddam's actions. The Arab people of the Middle East had been proud of Saddam's handling of the war against Iran, but his actions toward Kuwait earned him the title of villain. Suddenly, he became the most detestable person in the Gulf.
At the time of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, the relationship between Iraq and the other Gulf countries had been more than strong. Kuwait's reserves of oil, however, were coveted by the other countries. In 1933, Iraq's king, King Ghazi, took to the radio to convince Iraqis that the Iraqi government should annex Kuwait, since he saw Kuwait as an extension of Iraqi territory. He had planned an Iraqi attack on Kuwait, but before the invasion was to occur, the king died in a car accident. However, the seed of invasion had been planted in the Iraqi people's heads. In 1961, Kuwait declared independence from Britain, prompting the Iraqi president at that time to announce that Kuwait was part of Iraq.
During the Iran-Iraq war, the Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian governments supported Iraq, due to the fact that the three gulf countries are majority Sunni while the majority of Iran are adherents to Shia Islam. In fact, the Kuwaiti and Saudi governments together offered the Iraqi government approximately 14 billion U.S. dollars in aid. Iraqi government was wish to pay back that money throughout decreasing the oil production on OPEC to get a chance to sell their oil but, what happened was the opposite, Kuwaiti government who is a member on the OPEC increase their production which makes Iraqi be in troubles because they won’t be able to cover the money that they borrow because of the war. Some political analysts believe that Kuwaiti`s government did this action as a pressure on the Iraqi government to resolve outstanding border problems for decades. As result, Iraqi`s government began to directing accusations to Kuwait that Kuwait has unlicensed oil drilling on the Iraqi side which call Rumaila oil field; Kuwait call that oil field Al-Ratqa. This field is on the common area between Kuwait and Iraq. The president of Iraq Sadam Housain asked Kuwait and Saudi`s government to forget or negotiate with Iraqi government about the money that they borrowed from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia because Iraq was in war with Iran for eight years to protect them from Iranian dangerous. After that, the situation got to the highest tension between Iraq and Kuwait. So, the war drums wasn’t for a war between the neighbors but people on the Gulf countries thought that it just normal issue. In addition to that, Iraqi president expected another war with Iran so he was looking for a bigger coasts on the Persian Gulf to have a better Strategic locations. In order to support their situation, Iraqi`s government remained Iraqi`s people that Kuwait was land for Iraq long time ago. Also, to snatch the Arab countries feeling and emotion through Palestinian revelation at that time; president sadam Hossain accused Kuwaiti prince Jaber al-Sabah and Saudi King “King Fahad Al-Saud” as traitors because they have a good relationship with the West countries as the United State and the United Kingdom. These were the situations and reasons which lead the Iraqi president Sadam Housain to attached Kuwait.
On the morning of August 02, 1990, Iraqi Army entered Kuwait without any prior announcement. Iraqi tanks and armor were on the middle of Kuwait with in cable of hours. Iraqi Army controlled the main and important locations on Kuwait such as, the Prince palace. fortunately, Kuwait`s prince escaped to Saudi Arabia. The reason that Iraqi Army occupied Kuwait fast was because the Kuwaiti Army was not prepared. Iraqi Army control TV and radio station and they arrested thousands of Kuwaiti citizen and in addition to large numbers of foreigners. The Iraqi Army did a big steal operation; they steal everything on the market such as food, appliances and medical equipment on organized campaign and delivered to Iraq. On the other hand, the Arabian`s countries attitude was contrast some of them supported Iraq and other was against that while some were neutral like Algeria and Tunisia. Saudi Arabia`s king attitude was clear when he said Saudi Arabia and Kuwait are one country weather be existing together or vanished together that give Kuwaiti`s people hope to return their land. The world was against what Sadam did in Kuwait. Egypt was not happy about that situation. Therefore, king Fahad and Egyptian`s president Hossni Mobarak asked the big countries like the U.S. and U.K. to help them return Kuwait from Iraq Army. They formed an alliance to throe out Iraqi Army from Kuwait.
After couple of mounts the U.S, President George H.W. Bush asked for a big operation to free Kuwait. The alliance which was leader by the U.S. Army, and association with Saudi Arabia and other countries army like the U.K were ready to start the plan which named as operation desert storm. The alliances built up troops and prepare the equipment they need. The started with aerial bombardment to important location and to help the troops to go forward toward the capital. As result of the aerial bombardment, the Iraqi Army got weak which lead the troops to make circle to cut supplies to the anime army which came from Baghdad. The Iraqi president accepted the Soviet Union suggestion to stop the war by withdrawal the Iraqi`s Army from Kuwait. This operation was one of the biggest Ground campaign after World War II around one million troop faced each other with their armored vehicles and air support. The alliance could to free Kuwait in forty days. The Iraqi Army left Kuwait on February, 26, 1991. On February 27 1991, the U.S, President George H.W. Bush declared that Kuwait is free. This word that the Kuwaitis people and the whole world was waiting for after the last soldier left Kuwait.
However, the Iraqi Army practiced unbelievable thing toward the people and the environment. They were killing people on the street and rape the woman and treat them as slaves. In addition, they started the fire on the main government`s building, and they opened the oil pump on the sea which lead the sea to be pollute for a long time. Also, before they leave the country they started the fire too on the oil field which made the Middle East especially Gulf countries under a huge black cloud for cable of days. These practices makes people suffer until this day from cancer and other diseases.

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