Free Research Paper On Critical Study Of Research Papers On Job Satisfaction To Illustrate Concepts Of Quantitative

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Satisfaction, Workplace, Job, Study, Money, Education, Meeting, Journal

Pages: 8

Words: 2200

Published: 2020/10/20

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Research Methods for Business

Abstract
This Report deals with the research process and critique of two research papers related to ‘job satisfaction’. The first paper by Steven Rogelberg et al (2010) investigates effect of employee satisfaction with meetings, which are frequent, time-consuming and unavoidable at contemporary workplaces. Authors claim that employees’ experience in meetings has an effect on overall job satisfaction. Apart from the five widely used facets of job satisfaction such as pay, promotion opportunities, co-workers, supervision and the ‘work itself’, the authors include ‘satisfaction with meetings’ as the sixth facet in determining overall job satisfaction.
The second paper by Tan Teck-Hong & Amna Waheed (2011) studies the effect of Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory on job satisfaction reported by sales personnel in Malaysian retail sector. Further, the authors explore the mediating effect of ‘love of money’ as a mediator between salary and job satisfaction.
Both papers displayed novelty in their studies – the first one looking at ‘meeting satisfaction’, while the second one was exploring ‘love of money’ and whether these new dimensions have any effect on job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is a key driver for employees’ performance as well as retention in any organization. Both the papers contribute to the knowledge and help in developing policies about enriching ‘meeting experiences’ (quality and quantity of meetings), and designing appropriate ‘compensation packages’ for employees.

Papers selected for this Report

Paper 1: Steven G. Rogelberg, Joseph A. Allen, Linda Shanock, Cliff Scott & Marissa Shuffler (2010). Employee satisfaction with Meetings: A Contemporary Facet of Job Satisfaction, Human Resource Management, 49(2), pp. 149-172. DOI: 10.1002/hrm.20339.
Paper 2. Tan Tech-Hong and Amna Waheed (2011). Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Job Satisfaction in the Malaysian Retail Sector: The Mediating Effect of Love of Money, Asian Academy of Management Journal, 16(1), 73-94.
Research Methods for Business
Paper 1: Steven G. Rogelberg, Joseph A. Allen, Linda Shanock, Cliff Scott & Marissa Shuffler (2010). Employee satisfaction with Meetings: A Contemporary Facet of Job Satisfaction, Human Resource Management, 49(2), pp. 149-172. DOI: 10.1002/hrm.20339.

Introduction

The most accepted and common facets of satisfaction according to Judge, Thoreson, Bono & Patton (2001) are satisfaction with: pay, promotion opportunities, co-workers, supervision and the ‘work itself’ (Smith, Kendall & Hulin, 1969). This paper investigates the effect of ‘employee satisfaction with meetings’ on ‘overall job satisfaction’ as the contemporary work places are well-known for frequent and long-drawn meetings, which have practical and theoretical importance. Meetings are a principal vehicle for communicating and disseminating information (Rogelberg, 2006). Thus meeting satisfaction could be a proxy for satisfaction, as studies revealed that satisfaction with communication positively relates to job satisfaction (Downs & Hazen, 1977).

Data Collection

Quantitative research method is used in this study. The authors have adopted ‘convenience sampling’ in collecting data for assessing ‘satisfaction with meetings in respondents’ current job overall’ and ‘satisfaction with a specific meeting’. Authors conducted two studies with two different data sets and used simple regression in the first study and multiple regression for the second study.
In the first study for collection of data 30 research assistants (RAs) were recruited, who in turn identified up to 10 working adults for participating in the survey. After dropping participants (n=18) who were not involved in meetings and few individuals (n=13) with extreme demographic values (+/- 3 standard deviations), final sample consisted of 201 participants. The survey questionnaire was pilot-tested.
In the second study, internet survey of 3000 working adults randomly recruited from among the diverse population of employed individuals was conducted using services of the StudyResponse Center for Online Research. The participants were offered an electronic gift certificate through a lucky draw. The participants were sent an email initially and a follow-up email after one week. Final usable sample consisted of 785 participants.

Constructs and Measurement Scales

The constructs, items underlying the constructs, scale of measurement and authors/sources of the scales used in this research paper are summarized in Table 1. The dependent variable- ‘Job satisfaction’ was measured through widely accepted central facets (Stanton et al 2001), the JIG scale, Team member satisfaction and other peripheral facets such as: negative affectivity; affective organizational commitment; and role ambiguity. The independent variable ‘Meeting satisfaction’ was measured through quantity (number of meetings per week), satisfaction with communication that transpired in the meetings: overall satisfaction, horizontal satisfaction and organizational integration satisfaction.
[Adapted from Steven G. Rogelberg, Joseph A. Allen, Linda Shanock, Cliff Scott & Marissa Shuffler (2010)].

Concluding results

Baseline model was created using simple linear regression. The results revealed that meeting satisfaction was a meaningful predictor of job satisfaction (β = 0.61, p < 0.05) and accounted for 37 per cent of the variance. Further, meeting satisfaction correlated positively with work, coworker and supervisor satisfaction in particular.
Meeting satisfaction was unrelated to organizational type, gender, tenure and the number of hours worked. Number of meetings was not directly related to satisfaction with meetings. Meeting satisfaction was found to be correlated with job level and age.

This study supports the link between overall affective reactions to meetings (meeting satisfaction) and job satisfaction. In other words, to understand organizational life and attitudes, organizational researchers should consider ‘experiences in meetings’. The authors aptly conclude that both the quantities and qualities of meeting experiences are important to consider from an employee well-being perspective.

Critique

Samples are not representative of the population, as the authors used opportunistic convenience sampling of working adults in the first study. Even in the second study, the defined population was a self-selected response panel. Its overall representativeness to working adults was not established. . Hence, generalization of these results is difficult. For some of the constructs, instead of 3-point scale (Yes, No, ?), if 5-point scale was used, the data might have revealed richer insights into JDI, JS and meeting satisfaction. As the questionnaires used by the authors were theoretically grounded from previous research studies, I do not propose any changes in the questions contained in this study. Instead, I would have collected data through random sampling from a larger and widely representative target population so that the results of this study could be generalized.
Paper 2. Tan Tech-Hong and Amna Waheed (2011). Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Job Satisfaction in the Malaysian Retail Sector: The Mediating Effect of Love of Money, Asian Academy of Management Journal, 16(1), 73-94.

Introduction

This Paper investigates the relationship between job satisfaction (dependent variable) and Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory (independent variable) in the context of sales personnel in the Malaysian retail sector. Subsequently the authors assess whether the love of money mediates the relationship between job satisfaction and money.

Data Collection

Sales personnel (n= 180) from women’s clothing stores, through convenience sampling, were administered a questionnaire. 152 questionnaires were found to be in order and useful for analysis. Items in the questionnaire were based on the scales developed in previous research studies.

Constructs and Measurement Scales

The constructs and their sources used in the questionnaire are indicated in Table 3. The data was subjected to linear regression analysis to (i) test the relationship between Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene factors and job satisfaction and (ii) assess to what extent the love of money mediates the relationship between money and job satisfaction.

Concluding results

Results suggested that 54 per cent of the variance in job satisfaction could be explained by Herzberg’s motivational and hygiene factors. Four (working conditions, recognition, company policy and the money factor) of the ten motivational variables were found to be significant. Further, the mediation analysis revealed that money was significantly and positively related to pay satisfaction. Effect of love of money (mediator) on pay satisfaction (criterion) was found to be significant at the 0.05 level after controlling for the money variable (predictor). In this survey, sales personnel who value money highly seemed to be satisfied with their salary and job, when they receive a desired raise.

Critique

Questionnaire survey alone is not sufficient to throw light on several motivation-hygiene factors. This needs to be supplemented by qualitative research as well as observational techniques. Data from a larger sample through random selection would have yielded richer results forming a basis for generalization. Because of the nature of research topic, I would have preferred a mixed-method for delving deeper into the finer aspects of motivational and hygiene factors that affect job satisfaction.

References

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Steven G. Rogelberg, Joseph A. Allen, Linda Shanock, Cliff Scott & Marissa Shuffler
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