Good Essay About How The Sun Produces Heat And Light

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Atomic Bomb, Heat, Light, Nuclear Weapon, Energy, Disaster, Hydrogen, World

Pages: 6

Words: 1650

Published: 2021/02/22

Sun is an important heavenly body that exists in the solar system. Because of its existence, other planets and stars are moving appropriately in their orbits. The sun produces a large quantity of heat and light which is a source of energy for other planets including the Earth. Scientists have worked upon for so many years upon the working of the Sun. how does the sun produce light and heat. How does the sun produce light and heat? How does it provide energy?
The sun is a combination of an ample of gasses, which when combined results in various nuclear reactions and releases a lot of heat, light and energy. The sun is made up of many layers and parts, and the three important parts of the sun are core, the radiative zone, and the convective zone. The Core is a central part of the sun, which is a source of producing heat and light. While radiative zone surrounds the core of the sun, and the convective zone is around the radiative zone. Heat and light are produced by the sun through a nuclear reaction process known as fusion. In this process, hydrogen atoms come together, collaborate and form helium due to which an ample of heat and light is produced on the sun. In an apparent glance, sunlight seems to be as white but it possesses in it all rainbow colors i.e. red, orange, blue, green, yellow, indigo and violet. It is estimated that the temperature of the core is fifteen million degrees (Lan & Yu, 2013).
The whole process of nuclear fusion where hydrogen converts into helium, takes place in the core, which reveals this fact that a large amount of hydrogen is present in the core and these atoms join and transmit into a helium atom. Hence, all the heat, light and energy produced here moves to other parts of the sun and from there it moves towards the solar system, providing them heat and light. The whole amount of energy produced in the core through the process of nuclear fusion is known as the (P-P) proton-proton chain that occurs in a series of steps. The radiative zone is the second layer or part of the sun where heat is transmitted from the core. Thermal convection does not occur here because the material here is so much hot and dense that mere thermal radiation is enough to transfer a quantity of heat in outward areas. As the heat grows high, the material becomes cool that is why convection cannot rise here. Hydrogen and helium atoms produce photons, which moves or travels a little distance, transforms heat into other parts. Afterward convection zone comes, where the material is not much hot and dense so heat cannot be transferred from here to around the other parts through radiation. Hence, thermal convection process takes place because thermal columns take hot material to the next column known as photosphere. The photosphere is an apparent surface of the sun (Lan & Yu, 2013). Therefore, when the material becomes cool in the photosphere, it goes back to the convection zone's base and brings more heat from the radiative zone. When heat and light come to the photosphere, it is then free to move into the space, transmitting some amount of energy, light and heat to the other planets revolving around the sun in an orbit. As when it passes through the earth it jumps there and then is reflected by the atmosphere. In the meanwhile, the earth takes and absorbs some quantity of heat and light, due to which the earth gets heated.
The sun is a constant source of transferring heat and light to the globe. Heat and light energy produced by the sun transforms the climate and whole of the atmosphere. It also determines the temperature of the earth and whole climate is influenced by its heat and energy. It is analyzed that primitive people used to call the sun as a ball of fire or a hot object. However, nowadays scientists name it as an invisible fire because of chemical and physical processes that take place in the Sun (Lan & Yu, 2013). Scientists have pondered upon the question that has the sun enough and sufficient heat and light energy that it releases into the space and all around the atmosphere. Nuclear reactions take place on the sun and all other stars due to the presence of hydrogen gas. In nuclear reactions, nuclei of atoms come into an interaction with each other due to which a large amount of heat and energy is produced in and all around the surface. In order to start the nuclear reaction a huge quantity of energy is needed or required during the interaction process. Indeed, most of the nuclear reactions occur due to the transformation of hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclei.
The temperature of the Sun measured on the Kelvin scale is 15'000'000 degrees. At this incredible temperature atom of hydrogen cut off and tear, part, which results in the fusion of hydrogen nuclei and negatively charged electrons, which does not remain a part of an atom any more. The nucleus of hydrogen is a positively charged particle known as proton. While helium nucleus contains four particles that are positively charged including two protons and two neutrons. These two neutrons emerged out by the combination of two protons. It requires a huge amount of energy for hydrogen nuclei or proton to collaborate and transform into neutrons. This amount of energy is then sent to the core of the sun following high heat and pressure (Lan & Yu, 2013). Because of all these nuclear reaction and other chemical processes that occur at the surface of the sun, produce a large amount of light and heat. All the energy produced in the form of heat and light is a result of positively charged positrons that break into electrons, hence destroying each other. As Einstein equated that positrons and electrons were completely destructed during this nuclear reaction, due to which energy is emitted, and the earth absorbs this energy in the form of light and heat.
The internal body of the sun contains a big amount of particles that constantly interact with each other at high-level energy, mostly hydrogen atoms exist inside the sun. When an interaction occurs, it emerges an electromagnetic field, which keeps it sustained and maintained. Different and various layers that are present in the sun differ from one another in temperature, pressure, behavior and density. The central part of the sun, core, is spherical in shape, and the gravitational force existing here forces and pulls down all the atoms towards the center. Hence high vibration and extreme colliding of particles is generated which raises the temperature to extreme and intense level. Every particle present in the core has its own movement but when they collide and interact with each other, an enormous and tremendous electromagnetic plasma field is emerged out, which surrounds the core. Radiative ozone layer itself has thick surface and including the core in it makes its radius up to 580,000 km. This layer contains a high-level pressure, a huge amount of hydrogen and helium that enables the transmission of heat to move through the top layers of the sun. Another layer is present between the radiative zone and the convective zone. Here the pressure and density are lower as compared to other layers. This layer is known as tachocline. The photosphere layer is thin and has less density as compared to other layers of the sun. It is transparent and generates a constant radiation spectrum. As this layer has no pressure because of its gaseous behavior so, nothing can land here. This layer also contains sunspots, and the magnetic field of the sun determines the direction of the plasma columns and sunspots, which helps in the emission of heat. High-level magnetic field of the sun makes sunspots presence possible (Lan & Yu, 2013).
The temperature of the earth also depend upon the issuance of sun spots as the temperature of the earth will be high if sun spots are issued tremendously and lower will be the temperature of the earth if sun spots are issued at low level.
According to Christian and Barbier (2003)the sun gives light and heat energy to the whole universe because it is an enormous nuclear reactor that use to burn all the time, as converting hydrogen atoms into helium. Therefore, when hydrogen atoms combined, they transmitted to helium, which generates or produces a tremendous amount of heat and light energy. They argued that Fusion or burning is an efficient mean for transmitting mass to energy i.e. light and heat. The sun produces and emits various rays including x-rays, ultra-violet rays and gamma rays. Most of these rays generate through the nuclear reactions that consistently occur in the sun, which needs an ample of energy. They said that sun is a nuclear reactor where many nuclear reactions and burning process takes place. It also emits a huge amount of particles in the solar wind.
Many scholars and scientists have given their thoughts and ideas upon the working of the sun, some called it an enormous cloud made up of gas, breaking and falling down under the gravity resulting in collision and interaction that generates heat and light. While some scholars were of the view, that sun did not get a chance to become cool since it is created. After that, Einstein's concept made some sense, which equates that mass and energy are interchangeable. Further Sir Arthur Eddington, an astronomer concluded that sun produces heat and light due to the process of nuclear fusion as during heavy elements are created by burning the smaller or lighter ones. In the same way sunburns hydrogen atoms, which is a lighter element in the globe, it interacts, burns and convert into helium (Westra, 2006). The scientists that the sun has been burning for five billion years and will burn for further five billion year have estimated it. It does not contain a proper surface like Earth because of its hot temperature and density made up of all gas..


Christian, D. E., & Barbier, L. (2003). Why the sun shines. Cornucopia.
Lan, C. C. E., Wu, C. S., & Yu, H. S. (2013). Solar-simulated radiation and heat treatment induced metalloproteinase-1 expression in cultured dermal fibroblasts via distinct pathways: Implications for the reduction of sun-associated aging. Journal of Dermatological Science, 72, 290–295.
Westra, M. T. (2006). Fusion in the Universe: The power of the sun. The European journal for science teachers, issue 3.

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