Good Essay About “Ontological Arguments” (Pojman CH. 4)
Philosophy of Religion
It does not depend on evidence. The arguments raised by the authors try to fight the existence of God, but they contradict themselves later since their arguments do not hold ground. God exists within people, and it is as per a person’s acceptance and not force. God is the greatest possible being and possess existence hence his existence. From earlier times, people have stuck to the old notes and teachings of what God did. The books date certain features that one can see in real life hence they prove the existence of God.
“Theistic arguments” (Murray and Rea) 123-135
As per Kant, existence is not a property of itself but a precondition of containing other properties. However, the argument does not have a strong hold for one to believe it. The authors can succeed using their ontological argument towards Kant’s criticism (Murray and Rea pg. 129). Kant’s views towards properties do not provide great arguments. The second objection is towards the preconditions towards ascribing properties that can be properties on their own. However, if the arguments are true, the authors argue out that properties do occupy space hence his argument does not hold ground.
“The Argument from Religious Experience” (Pojman Ch. 5)
There is no degree that a Christina believer should have for them to infer the existence of God. A Christians should stick to the similarities contained in Christianity teachings. Through these teachings, a Christian can find the common themes and make conclusions from them. Whether the claim is true or not, no one has the exact answer to it, even Pojman does not have the correct figures. The existence of God lies in the beliefs that one has. One can tell the difference between veridical and delusionary through examples and evidence tabled.
“The Neuropsychological Basis of Religions” d’Aquili and Newberg (BB)
The hard truth of the matter is that God and religion stuck in the human minds and will not come out anytime soon. Since the inception of the two to human beings, people continue to believe in them though they are still mysteries, but people hunger to meet the Supreme Being. Newberg and d’Aquili conducted a couple of tests on several people and found spiritual contemplation triggers that hold the thoughts and hunger for more knowledge.
“Attributes of God: independence, goodness, and power” (Murray and Rea) 3-33
The paradox of the stone comes from the question whether God can create a stone too big for him to lift (Murray and Rea pg. 15). As per them, the paradox does not present a limitation of divine power. They believe in God and his existence. They acknowledge him as a creator; one of the concepts scrutinized in the paradox. They both have mixed concepts towards the attributes of God but have a couple of things they agree to.
“Attributes of God: eternity, knowledge, and Providence” (Murray and Rea) 35-63
The first reason is an eternal being should possess life. Therefore, if abstracta, time and sets exist then eternity does not exist though the factors can stand alone as temporal. The second reason is that an eternal being possesses life and has no limit to it hence there cannot be a beginning neither and end. Hence as per their argument, God cannot exist because he lacks an end. The third reason they come up with is that an eternal being has an infinite duration. The reason seems puzzling because a temporal life cannot have a duration.
“The Debate Over the Block Universe” Isham and Polkinghorne (BB)
Block universe puts together past, present, and the future, but they have different dimensions. The theory existed to explain certain occurrences. Under the explanation, it is true to say things people are gone still exist. The alternative view is considering the past, present and future do not move; they are all equal. It forms the tenseless view. Between the two, the block universe sounds logical because of the theory it follows. Tense less theory does not convince because there is no way the different times can be on the same time frame.
“God triune and incarnate” (Murray and Rea) 64-90
Swinburne suggests that true love exists not only to one beloved but third objects of love. He suggests that inward and outward love between two people is better than an inward love for one person. Hence, Swinburne suggests that there should exist a third person, but there stands no reason for three people to exist. In respect to the principle, there stands no requirement that one should believe in more than one entity though there are three uncreated divine persons.
“Miracles” (Pojman Ch. 7)
The essence of the reply is to try and bring into light the problem and flaws made by Hume. Apart from that, it gives the reader a different perspective towards the argument and lets them view a different perspective of the discussion.
“Against Miracles” David Hume (BB)
Hume comes up with three definitions of miracles. It is an event that has significance to religion. The event comes as a result of God’s work. The event violates the nature laws. Hume draws his skepticism from the lack of evidence to back some of the miracles. However, through there lacks evidence, he can view the miracles happening to him before his eyes. According to him, there lacks a defensive answer or argument towards miracles.
“Of ‘Of Miracles’” Peter Van Inwagen (BB)
Van Inwagen terms Hume’s arguments as a failure because they lack sense in them. The fact lies in the ‘contrary to experience’ explanation. The arguments tabled cannot have the benefit of the doubt when it comes to the ‘contrary to experience’.
“Science and the Credibility of Miracles” (Murray and Rea) 200-209
“God and Miracle in an Age of Science” A. Padgett (BB)
They are since most of them seems too impossible to do. The advancement of science makes some of the biblical miracles almost true. One of the miracles that trouble Padgett is Jesus resurrection. The Bible stipulates that such a miracle happened, but it is quite hard for a person to replay the role and expect the same results.
“Divine Action” Thomas Tracy (BB)
Universal casual determinism is the idea of the necessitation of every event by antecedent conditions and events in conjunction with nature’s laws. Tracy thinks it is true. She backs her support by stating facts that show God’s miracles happening at certain times and places. The reason behind it is effectively to meet the needs presented at the time.
Murray, Michael J. and Michael Rea. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Book.
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