Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Politics, Europe, United States, War, Diplomacy, America, World, Policy

Pages: 3

Words: 825

Published: 2020/11/17

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First Essay

Question Four
Negotiation Techniques
Negotiation in diplomacy is considered to be an art that requires special skills. Several negotiation techniques have been developed in history. These methods have been adopted by the current modern world society while taking into account societal changes that have taken place. Diplomacy involves foreign relations among countries in the world and has been very fundamental in ensuring world peace and order.
One of the negotiation methods in Diplomacy is based on the German “warrior or heroic” theory. The theory brings out the element that diplomacy can be used as an alternative war. In this sense, victory is not as a result of physical battle but rather a battle of words where the victor manages to gain an interest or avert a crisis without necessarily going to war.
Another negotiation technique in diplomacy is based on the British Mercantile or Shopkeeper theory. In this instance, diplomacy is used to attain a middle ground upon which every party can come to an agreement. It is a method that is mainly used in negotiating international trade agreements between countries.

Ideal Diplomat

Summits in the Cold War of USA, Soviet/Russia and China
One notable leader in the Soviet Union was Nikita Khrushchev. He was a charismatic leader with much influence over the presidium in the Soviet Union. His main goal was to ease the cold war tensions at that time, but he did not fully trust the West in accomplishing this task. In early 1955, there was tension in the world concerning small islands next to China’s Mainland that was a territory occupied by Chiang’s forces. There was suspicion that the Dulles had an atomic bomb that would be used to obliterate China cities. The American Senate through their majority leader condemned any talk of war by the Republicans. Public opinion was also reluctant towards going to war.
Britain and France proposed a conference to mitigate the tension in the world after West Germany had joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The negotiations in the proposed conference were geared towards making the World War II allies to withdraw their troops from Austria. This was eventually accomplished, and the Eisenhower administration accepted a proposal to have summit meetings in Geneva. These summit meetings created an environment of trust among four powerful states that called for rapid disarmament and maintaining European security. The summit was a major step in foreign diplomacy in the world as it brought peace rather than allowing a devastating war to erupt.

Second Essay

Question six
US- European Diplomacy
The US and the European community commenced diplomatic relations in 1953 when the US mission to the European Coal and Steel Community was formed. The diplomatic ties were further asserted by the incorporation of the Trans-Atlantic Declaration. Ever since that time there has been immense political dialogue between the U.S and the European Community.

Different Views on American Diplomacy

The attitude of the isolationists was mostly manifested in the 1930s where America felt it needed to be left alone. Foreign policy was not given any attention by the end of this year. The year had been marked by a huge stock market crisis, and Americans felt their domestic issues were more important. Enormous debts throughout the 1920s had increased hardships. The Hoover administration created the Howley Smoot Tariff that reduced trade relations with foreigners.


According to realists, American diplomacy should be centred in promoting their national interests rather than promoting morality, ideology and ethics. The diplomats are expected to take the world as it is with its many problems and flaws. Difficult choices are to be made out of political necessity and not moral considerations.


President Woodrow Wilson is famously known for promoting the idealism. It was a foreign policy that portrayed philosophical, moral and ethical values of the United States. It however failed in preventing wars in Europe that took place after World War II.


Ideological hustlers developed this crusader view where notions of Liberty and American Exceptionalism were given much priority in foreign policy. America was presumed to be a superior power excluding the rest of the world. There was avoidance of getting drawn into the internal affairs of other countries.

Diplomacy Doctrines by Various Leaders in the US and Europe

President James Monroe brought into existence the Monroe Doctrine in the US Congress. It was a foreign policy that was meant to stop other nations from interfering with the states in the North and South America that were mainly Latin America. The doctrine involved threatening such states with forced intervention by the US as their actions would be considered as aggression. President Jefferson insisted on maintaining neutrality toward European conflicts in his foreign policy. President George Washington created foreign policy precedents by installing American emissaries abroad without any approval from the American Congress.
President Lincoln was not well versed in diplomacy, but he managed to rely on a blockade military strategy that brought an end to the American Civil War. President Polk’s foreign policy was evident during the expansion of American territories where there was the annexation of independent Texas. He claimed America had unquestionable title explicitly to keep off other interested states. Napoleon was mostly interfering with the internal affairs of other countries in a bid to expand his empire. He undermined the treaty of Amiens and posted his armies in those states.
Diplomacy is very vital in our international community. It has led to many developments in the modern world and resolved crisis situations that would have resulted in bad conflicts in terms of war and bloodshed.

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WePapers. (2020, November, 17) Good Essay About Two Essays. Retrieved July 23, 2021, from https://www.wepapers.com/samples/good-essay-about-two-essays/
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Good Essay About Two Essays. Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/good-essay-about-two-essays/. Published Nov 17, 2020. Accessed July 23, 2021.

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