Good Example Of Attention Deficit And Disruptive Disorders Research Paper

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Family, Children, ADHD, Disorders, Nursing, Behavior, Psychology, Attention

Pages: 6

Words: 1650

Published: 2021/02/20

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Abstract

Attention Deficit and Disruptive Disorders or ADDD cases are often very difficult to discern properly from regular misbehavior of children because of their similarity in nature. Children can be very inquisitive and would try their best to test their parent’s boundaries especially when they misbehave. As a result, some parents often do not realize that their children have developed ADDD especially if their behavior seemed ‘normal’. However, it is critical that parents monitor their children’s behavior because ADDD is very serious and warrant treatment depending on what kind of ADDD had been developed. This paper will discuss the nature of ADDD, especially its sub-types, and the various treatment methods available to treat the disorder. A brief explanation of ADDD’s risks if left untreated will also be included in this paper in order to show why it is critical for parents, adults and other interested parties to intervene once their children exhibit the disorders’ symptoms.

Introduction

Children can be quite a mystery to adults, especially due to their unique qualities and quirks that makes it hard to determine what they are thinking. Some children can be very vocal, while others tend to be quiet about it. Unfortunately, the difficulty in getting children to speak up honestly about their feelings –especially when they do something wrong- makes it difficult to determine if something else is going on in their mind that would need medical attention. This issue is very common to children with Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Disorders (ADDD) because adults often confuse its symptoms with common quirks in children and disregard it completely. Considering this unfamiliarity to ADDD by many adults, it is a question as to what is ADDD? Attention Deficit and Disruptive Disorders is a behavioral disorder that affects a child’s attention and focus, causing them to misbehave and exhibit disruptive tendencies.

Attention Deficit and Disruptive Disorders or ADDD

Attention Deficit and Disruptive Disorders or ADDD, according to Singh (2009), is defined as a “set of externalizing negativistic behaviors that co-occur during childhood and which are referred collectively in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Fourth Edition (DSM-IV).” Under the DSM-IV, there are at least three sub-types under ADDD and they are Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder . Out of the three sub-groups, ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed in children and according to the statistics of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015), at least 6.4 million of American children ages 4 to 17 have been diagnosed with this disruptive disorder. It is also alarming that that the official record is not concise due to the community samples stressing that ADHD cases are higher and some are unreported. Boys are likely to be diagnosed with the disorder and children as young as seven years old can develop it .
A child can be get ADHD either through one’s genetics or acquiring them through the environment. Millichap (2009) stated that in rare circumstances, a chromosomal anomaly has the capacity to cause ADHD in children. In regular circumstances, a child’s development in the prenatal, perinatal and postnatal stages can also be a reason for getting ADHD. In the prenatal stage, children whose mothers have anemia, toxemia and substance abuse can cause developmental abnormalities that can result to ADHD. This disorder can also be caused by exposure to toxic chemicals and lack of vitamins, which can affect child birth. ADHD can be caused in the perinatal stage through breech delivery, cerebral hemorrhage and encephalitis. Finally, children can develop ADHD because of head-related injuries and drugs meant to cure illnesses such as asthma, epilepsy and allergies. The home and community environment of children can also cause ADHD, especially if their parents also have psychiatric illnesses like ADHD .
In order to determine if a child has ADHD and severity levels, the DSM-IV-TR, as stated by Rickel and Brown (2007), had listed five diagnostic criteria for physicians to use. The first level includes two diagnostic levels depending on the symptoms. The first symptom entails inattentiveness and inability to organize or listen to instructions, which has been persisting for the past six months, while the second symptom level is based on the hyperactivity and impulsivity of the child for the past six months. The following diagnostic criteria stresses that the symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity has already caused impairment even before the child turned seven years old and has already affected their actions outside their homes. Finally, the signs that the symptoms occur even without the child’s mental disorders acting up is a clear marker that a child has ADHD. Once the level of severity has been determined, specialists can indicate as to what type of ADHD has been developed: Combined Type, Predominantly Inattentive Type and Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type.
Treating ADHD can be done through evidence-based treatment in order to accommodate the type of ADHD contracted by the patient and their specific means. Patients have choices of using three treatment methods to cure ADHD: stimulant medication, psychoeducational intervention and behavioral therapies. Stimulant medication is often targets the specific symptoms of ADHD, such as the lack of attention and concentration. Unfortunately, using this method sometimes fuel ADHD further if it is not properly taken. Regardless of this setback, 90% of ADHD patients work well with stimulant treatment. Psychotherapy and behavioral theraphy can be used hand-in-hand with one another as it would tackle the immediate and long-term issues felt by children through counselling and reward programs. It is often advised to parents of ADHD patients to seek the assistance of friends, teachers, and family members to determine which symptoms have been exhibited by the patient to determine which specific treatment is the best .
Om the other hand, ODD or Oppositional Deficit entails children or adults who showcase hostile behavior towards their peers and adults. According to Elia (n.d.), ODD is often transferred to children and adults through their family’s health history, but determining its prevalence can be difficult especially due to the diagnostic criteria used to determine a person’s prognosis. However, it is notable that ODD is mostly seen in boys in comparison to girls contracting the same disorder. Many often mistaken ODD to CD or Conduct Disorder especially because of their similarities in symptoms. However, ODD patients often exhibit irritability and defiance rather than violence and insensitivity that CD patients often exhibit. It is also very difficult to determine the exact causes of ODD, but it is perceived by experts that it is caused conflicts found in a child’s environment. Diagnosis of children with ODD often occurs if they exhibit symptoms such as defiance and aggression towards others and adults within 6 months. It is important that ODD is clearly determined because it also shares similar symptoms with ADHD and CD. Similar treatment methods are also available for ODD patients, but it is also recommended that underlying problems like familial relations and psychological issues (ADHD for example) should be considered before picking the correct treatment for ODD. It is also noted by experts that ODD patients improve even without treatment.
Finally, conduct disorder or CD is another form of ADDD which often reflects violence on patients, especially rules and norms. Much like ODD and ADHD, diagnosis on CD patients is often through history and patients tend to develop this type of ADDD on their late childhood or early adolescence period. The cause of contracting CD is also similar to ADHD; either by genetics or acquired through the environment. In terms of genetics, mothers of CD patients may have been engaged in substance abuse and other psychological disorders which may have affected the development of their child in its prenatal period. However, CD can also be contracted by children even if their parents were healthy throughout their development. CD patients mostly exhibit signs of violence and insensitivity that others may find threatening. They also tend to act aggressively, mostly showing acts of cruelty and violence without showing any emotions while committing the act. Boys and girls often differ as to how they also show aggressive behavior. Boys often tend to get embroiled in fights and steal while girls often lie and engage in premarital sex. Abuse and suicide attempts are also quite common to CD patients.
Patients who exhibit these violent behavior within 12 months should immediately be brought to the attention of medical professionals for treatment. Unlike ADHD and ODD, patients with CD are given different psychotherapy and drugs to cure their disorder. Drugs directed to CD often are meant for comorbid disorders or those with multiple psychological disorders. Some of these drugs include stimulants (also used in ADHD), mood stabilizers and anti-psychotics such as risperidone. It is inadvisable to use moralization or admonitions when handling patients of CD because this would only trigger further issues from the patient and resist treatment. In order to reduce this possibility, individual psychotherapy and behavior modification therapy can be used to redirect the anger of these patients. However, if they indeed show very aggressive tendencies and the usual treatment methods do not work, they can be placed in residential centers in order to correct their behavior. Using these residential centers can work perfectly especially because the patient would be removed from the environment which caused CD to develop in the first place .

Risks of Untreated ADDD

It is important to clearly address the problem of ADDD patients because if left untreated, it may prove dangerous for the future of these patients. According to Harpin (2005), patients with either one of these disorders would find it difficult to establish relations with their peers. For ADHD patients, for instance, their restlessness and inability to concentrate may find it difficult to excel in school and trigger instances of rejection by peers. This may result the possibility of two or more psychological disorders to be developed and further affect the child’s growth. It would also be difficult for patients to control their impulsiveness and hyperactivity by the time they grow older despite the reducing severity of their disorder’s symptoms. As a result, these young people would engage into more anti-social and defiant acts that may cause constant conflict and severe created ties. Increased risk of academic incapacity and criminal behavior is also reported to patience with disruptive disorders, especially if the patient also has ODD or CD and other psychological incapacities. Once these patients reach adulthood, it is likely that they would find it difficult to find work and become unable to give extensive attention towards their work and their families once they marry and make their own families. Some may even pass down their psychological disorders to their children .

Conclusion

ADDD is not a laughing matter for many because affected children, and adults alike, suffer immensely because of these disorders and may find it difficult to recover if nothing is done to cure it. ADHD patients are unable to control their hyperactivity and impulsivity, which makes it difficult for them to focus and affect their performance. ODD patients cannot control their defiance even if they are starting to defy rules they know is there for a reason. Finally, CD patients often show insensitivity to the extent they can look immoral and dangerous even to their family and friends. While there are available treatments that can help cure ADDD cases, it is important that parents and adults intervene immediately if they see something peculiar regarding their children’s behavior. Intervention is critical especially if their questionable behavior is starting to affect their performance and manners. If they are not treated and guided accordingly, these ADDD patients may suffer even in their adulthood and become unable to shape their future as they see fit.

References

Elia, J. (n.d.). Disruptive Behavioral Disorders. Retrieved from Merck Manuals: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/mental-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents/disruptive-behavioral-disorders
Harpin, V. (2005). The effect of ADHD on the life of an individual, their family, and community from preschool and adult life. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, i2-i7.
Millichap, J. G. (2009). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Handbook: A Physician's Guide to ADHD. New York: Springer Science and Business Media.
Rickel, A., & Brown, R. (2007). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Boston: Hogrefe Publishing.
Singh, S. (2009). Child Health Nursing. New Delhi: Gennext Publication.
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015, March 31). ADHD Data and Statistics. Retrieved from US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html

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