Good Example Of Essay On Urban Settlements In Eldc & Emdc
The structure of urban settlements in ELDC & EMDC (urban models).The twentieth century was marked by the loss of stability in growth of population and urbanization. This caused a large-scale energy development of industry and agriculture, transport, that led to a significant increase of anthropogenic and technogenic impacts. The active manufactured activities in many regions of our planet have destroyed the biosphere and created a new type of environment - the technosphere.Technosphere was created for comfort habitat and for protection from the negative impacts of our nature. The city did not become the dominant form of settlement. Over the centuries, the urban forms of life were the exception rather than the rule due to the dominance of these forms of production, which constituted the basis subsistence of farming and individual work. Therefore, during the classical era of slavery, the city was closely connected with the land and agricultural labor. During the feudal era, urbanization had distinct features of farming so the settlement was uneven and people lived far away from each other, without being connected into a one single structure. The predominance of the village as a form of settlement in this era depended ultimately weak level of development of productive forces, which did not allow the man a little far off the ground economically. Modern urbanization in ELDC is different from the urbanization in EMDC. The level of urbanization in ELDC is lower than in EMDC (44% vs. 75%), but the growth rate is 5 times higher, because these countries are at the initial stage of industrial development. Although in some countries of the developing world there is a high level of urbanization, but it is a false urbanization, when the level of urbanization is impossible to judge about the level of economic development of the country.Below I will present all known urban models that will help to develop a theme. The first table was presented by Hoyt in the 1920s and 1930s, it takes full account of the development of public transport (figure 1). This model describes that urban areas develop into the sectors alongside the main transport routes into and out of a city. Hoyt also argued that housing people high-class would never be close to industrial zones, factories, mills (F. Gibberd, 1980). Using this model, we can establish the approximate number of transport and transport routes, which indicates more accurate index of urbanization structure of EMDC.
(Figure 1, http://www.bbc.com/)
The following table was presented in 1925 by Burgess, it is a description of the model of urban land use, which divides the city into concentric circles expanding from the center to the suburbs. This model was built according to some Burgess` observations of the development of large cities in the U.S., in particular for Chicago, the development of which was presented with a number of materials in such a form. This model takes into account the relationship between socio-economic status (income) households and the distance from the Central Business District (CBD) (figure 2). The further housing is located from (CBD), the better quality it has but also more time spent on the road. Thus, access to improved housing costs depends on the commuting time and expenses on the road. According to this monocentric model, the city can be divided into 6 concentric zones. According to Burgess, the growth of cities is the process of expanding and reconversion of land use, with the trend of each inner zone to expand in the outer zone.
(Figure 2, http://ewburgess.weebly.com/)
This model (figure 3) was created for cities of medium sizes in Northern England. The concentric rings resemble the model of Burgess and separate sectors give the similarity with the Hoyt`s model. This model is unique because it takes into account the direction of the prevailing southwesterly winds (arrows). The main industrial area is concentrated in the Northeast, where industrial pollution is blown off from the west and southwest, where there are housing that is more expensive and the air is much cleaner. Less affluent workers live near industrial areas, as they cannot afford the extra cost of the road. This model works best for medium-sized industrial cities where working class is dominated. More recently, this pattern is no longer valid, especially in southern England, southeast and the Midlands, where the middle class is getting dominant. Therefore, I think this model is more suitable for the description of urban processes in ELDC than EMDC, because of main reasons for the development of cities in ELDC. The main factor influencing the growth of British cities is restraint, for example in the USA the growth of the urban population is different. Due to the large number of investors and intense immigration, the cities in North America went uncontrollably sprawling new developments; for example, Los Angeles that for various reasons has grown in breadth but its CBD has not reached sufficiently high dimensions. The shops and shopping centers scattered around the periphery and are not incorporated in complexes.
(Figure 3, http://www.slideshare.net/)
The Hopkinson`s model (figure 4) was designed in 1985 for the UK and Western Europe. It involves both the concentric zones and sectors. At that time, the main industrial area was built along the railroad tracks and the first factories were built around the old city. Pre-war residential buildings extend from the CBD along the main roads. The CBD is centered on an ancient (prehistoric or historic site, usually defensive (such as an old Bronze Age hill fort and a mediaeval castle) and remains as the historic and cultural heart of the city and as the administrative center. Transport routes were constructed to avoid traffic jams in the center, i.e., were mainly located around the city center.
(Figure 4, http://cronodon.com/PlanetTech/Cities_British.html)
2. The analysis of economic, social, environmental and political inequality and its consequences in urban areas of ELDC & EMDC.
EMDC`s urbanization is defined as follows: a) a slow growth and stabilization of the share of the urban population. Slowing down is observed when the proportion of the urban population exceeds 75%, and stabilization is about 80%. This level of urbanization can be observed in Great Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany. b) stabilization and the influx of population in certain regions of the countryside; the cessation of population growths into metropolitan agglomerations, concentrating the population, capital, socio-cultural and administrative functions. Moreover, in recent years in the metropolitan areas of the USA, UK, Australia, France, Germany and Japan there has been a process of deconcentration of the production and population, manifested in the outflow of population from the nuclei of agglomerations in their outer zones, and even outside agglomerations; changing ethnic composition of the cities due to constant immigration from ELDC. c) high fertility in migrant families has a significant impact on the decline of the "title" of the urban population; the deployment of new jobs in the outer zones of the metropolitan area and even beyond.
ELDC`s urbanization is defined as follows:
a) cities in ELDC develop on the background of the industrial underdevelopment and the concentration of manufacturing in a few cities and towns. It has a "tertiary" oriented growth of cities. Due to the large spread of the maintenance, functions of cities in developing countries are similar to pre-industrial centers of the previous eras in economically developed countries.b) clearly expressed territorially and property division, urban areas emitting habitats of population groups with high, medium, low and the lowest income. The last group is representative of the "slum dwellers" type of urbanization, which is manifested in developing countries with a high proportion of the urban population.c) the formation of urban agglomerations and megalopolis is largely associated with the manifestation of this form of urbanization as suburbanization, which in developing countries started much later, with the 70-ies of XX century and stretched over the time. That is, developing countries are still at the stage of suburbanization in contrast to developed countries, where there is other form of urbanization such as gentrification. 3) Explain the problems of urban growth in both ELDC & EMDC.
The process of urbanization in ELDC has a number of socio-economic impacts, including economic, social, demographic and geographical implications.
The economic consequences are contradictory. Urbanization as an economic process broadens the scope and increases employment in the economy, increases the efficiency of utilization of labor resources due to changes in the sectorial and occupational composition, improve the quality of the labor force in the higher education and training. At the same time, the movement of population in large cities leads to a reduction in rural and relative growth of urban unemployment. Expanding employment, urbanization, however, is accompanied by a rise in open unemployment and the spread of forms of hidden unemployment and underemployment. Social consequences in the cities manifested into the growing gap between the expanding needs and low living standards of the majority of citizens whose income does not exceed the physical minimum means of subsistence. Many of them are malnourished. In general, the process of urbanization is leading to improved living conditions in the cities (housing conditions, the state of municipal economy, transport and social infrastructure). However, there is a problem of unavailability of these conditions for a considerable part of citizens, as they constitute the lower layers (of clerks and workers of enterprises) of the population. The growth of cities leads to higher levels of education and health of the population in ELDC, but they are not all available, as these services are provided on a paid basis. The demographic consequence of urbanization in ELDC is the decline of fertility associated with welfare, cultural and educational level, employment of women in social production. The policies aimed at reducing or increasing fertility have a great influence on the birth rate. While there are countries where under the influence of traditions remain high fertility rates even in cities.In EMDC there are different processes of urbanization where the industrial development was accompanied by the growth of the cities, modern post-industrial trends in slowing and even some outflow of population from the cities in a suburban area, where the environmental situation and living conditions were more favorable. This process has received the name of suburbanization. The most urbanized countries, where the urban population is more than 4/5 of the residents including Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Russia, USA, France, Turkey, Israel. The main problems of urbanization in EMDC are overpopulation and environmental pollution by a large number of vehicles and the expansion of industrial zones.
4. Evaluate strategies to improve conditions in urban areas in ELDC/EMDC.
The role of cities is very high in the existence of ELDC and EMDC, as they are centers of economic, political and spiritual life of people and thus are the main engines of progress. Due to the fact that the proportion of people living in cities increases, the problems of cities and urbanization become increasingly urgent today.
Despite the fact that population growth has slowed over the last 20 years, the population increased from about 4.2 billion people to almost 5.7 billion, of which about one-third of the population is under the age of 15 and more people live in big cities. By the end of this century, humanity will cross the border, when more than 50% of the population will live in cities. Needs of about 2 billion people who are expected to become urban residents in the next couple of decades, and management of human settlements, with a focus on ensuring the sustainability of their operation are unprecedented complexity of the task. Rapid urbanization and the growth of towns and cities - particularly peculiar to ELDC.In order to improve the quality of life in ELDC/EMDC we must fight against worsening conditions which in most cases, especially in ELDC, acquired a crisis character. Development of rural and urban areas is interdependent. In addition to improving living conditions in cities, we must also seek to ensure an adequate infrastructure, public services and employment opportunities in rural areas in order to enhance their appeal and create a comprehensive network of settlements to minimize migration of population from rural areas to cities. Special attention should be paid to the small and medium-sized cities.Today it is impossible to avoid a rapid growth of urbanization. Progress does not stand still, with the advent of new technologies there is a large number of brand-new occupations appear. The improvement of the condition of education can lead to increase of the qualified specialists in the future in various fields. We must use all possible ways to modernize the industrial zones and conditions for agriculture. To achieve balance in the distribution of people is much easier in EMDC, as there have long been used such measures of control. In ELDC things are more difficult because of the lack of investment and a huge number of disadvantaged residential areas, which are deeply rooted their negative impact on the infrastructure of cities. The strategies to improve living conditions should be implemented through the government, but it is necessary to develop a comprehensive plan that will fully explain the seriousness of the problem.
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2. Khoi Vinh, Allan Cole (2015). Urban Structure Models. Available: http://www.martinsaphug.com/learn/units/urbanization/urban-structure-models/. Last accessed 12 Feb 2015.
3. Unknown. (2014). Urban models in MEDCs. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/urban_environments/urban_models_medcs_rev1.shtml. Last accessed 13 Feb 2015.
4. Unknown. (2015). The Structure of British and European Cities. Available: http://cronodon.com/PlanetTech/Cities_British.html. Last accessed 13 Feb 2015.
5. Wolfgang Fengler. (April 15, 2010). Can rapid population growth be good for economic development? Available: http://blogs.worldbank.org/africacan/can-rapid-population-growth-be-good-for-economic-development. Last accessed 14 Feb 2015.
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