Good General Aviation Research Paper Example
As defined by ICAO (the Chicago Convention, 1944) is a general aviation civil aviation, which provides all types of operations, except for scheduled air services and non-scheduled air transport operations for remuneration or hire (Crane, D., 1997).
Aircraft general aviation is the planes, helicopters, gyroplanes, balloons and other aircraft that are in irregular operation, i.e. outside the scope of airlines offering transport passengers and cargo on schedule. These aircraft are used by public organizations, firms and individuals for their own purposes. In the 21st century, a powerful competitor in the commercial air transport world stands general aviation (GA). At the meeting in September 2013, on the 38th Session of the ICAO Assembly was noted the special role of GA in the global civil aviation. For example, in the US sector of GA annually to an average of $ 150 billion to the national economy, creates jobs for 1.5 million people, the total income is $ 53 billion. USA.
The most developed and advanced legislation in the field of business aviation and general aviation aircraft should be regarded as US law. The Basic Law is called: Federal aviation act of 1958. US Air Code 1958 is a lengthy document detailing regulating all matters of aviation activity. In essence, the majority of its norms of direct action, which makes US Code effective regulator, set aviation relations, including those arising out of the activities of general aviation and business aviation. US Air Code of 1958 is constantly updated. Significant changes have been made to it by Congress in 1975, 1978, 1990, 1992 and 1994. As for the business aviation and general aviation, the regulation of this activity on questions included in the Air Code of the United States in 1958, and other legal acts of the US aviation legislation. The applicability of the Air Code of 1958 is provided by the detailed study of the terms, including those relating to general aviation and business aviation. Manages and supervises the activities of the business aviation a single body - the Federal Aviation Administration. Its competence includes public administration and business aviation publication of legal acts relating to the management of training for her pilots, technical staff, their qualifications and certification. The Federal Aviation Administration also develops and implements the state policy in the field of business aviation. Within this framework, there is also the National Committee on US security, which monitors and controls the entire security situation transport operations and other commercial carriers.
GA attractiveness lies in its ability to perform tasks alien to commercial aviation - small cargo transportation, agricultural work, patrol, pilot training, air sports, aviation accounting animals, tourism, etc., as well as significant time savings for its users. It is achieved due to the possibility to fly out of schedule, the ability to use for takeoff and landing small airfields or elementary prepared sites, the number of which is much greater than the number of airfields for voyage aircraft and which may be located closer to the user. In addition, the user does not spend time for registration and registration of tickets and has a choice of direct (without change) the route to the destination. The GA aircraft are not only light vehicles: if a firm or individual acquires a large airplane or helicopter and operates its own purposes, this aircraft will refer to the GA and used in accordance with the rules of operation of GA.
Every million people flying by GA, creating 1,000 jobs at aerodromes and airports. In Europe, GA operates 8,000 small- and medium-sized businesses. In world practice there are two areas of civil aviation. The first relates to its use as a commercial air transport for the public transport of passengers, baggage, cargo and mail on domestic and international air routes. These shipments are made by air carriers on the basis of public air transportation agreement, the content of which is determined by law, and services for air transport are provided on a reimbursable basis. The second direction is not associated with the first one. General aviation does not provide regular and irregular services for the transportation of passengers, baggage and mail, which is referred to the exclusive competence of the commercial air transport. This is his functional purpose specified air legislation in many countries. GA is used for personal, corporate, business, sports, educational and other purposes, and is owned by large corporations, flight schools, individuals and non-profit organizations. ICAO distinguishes between: 1) air taxi; 2) corporate aviation; 3) private aviation; 4) business aviation (Rhoades, D.).
General aviation makes a significant contribution to the development of the national economy, improves the quality and standard of living in those countries where it is widely used. By the end of the XX century 89% of all civil aircraft in the world to use as part of general aviation, and 80% of all pilots fly planes of this type. In the United States, Canada, Brazil and the European Union the production of aircraft for general aviation in the aggregate exceed the cost of production for military aircraft. On 2013, more than 360,000 aircraft of general aviation were operated around the world. Economic Contribution of General Aviation in the US GDP is 90% compared with 10% derived from regular commercial air transport, which is understandable. In the United States recorded more than 225,000 thousand times courts of general aviation in Russia, of whom there are about two million. From 13,500 airports in the United States directly to the General Aviation are 5,000 airfields four types (Bednarek, J, 2003).
General aviation is a major component of civil aviation. Revenues to the budgets of countries such as USA, Canada, European countries, Brazil, Australia, South Africa, and in the future of China general aviation activities exceed the budgets of the major aircraft companies. For example, in 2010 the US budget was supplemented by direct and indirect revenues from general aviation to 150 billion dollars. That is three times the income of the company Boeing. In China, estimated that the costs and revenues from the sale of projects in the field of general aviation for the ten-year period will be characterized by the ratio of 1:80, from the development of new technologies - the ratio of 1:16, by increasing employment - 1:12. In most countries, general aviation is an efficient transportation system subsystem, a major supplier of personnel in civil aviation and aircraft construction, substantial defense mobilization reserve. But the main value of general aviation to the economy lies in the fact that it represents a unique mechanism of private investment in the development of civil aviation and aircraft of the modern state. Every citizen, paying for their own flight training, buying aircraft using the airspace, invests in the development of air transport infrastructure, reducing government spending on training of civilian and military pilots, construction and maintenance of airports and aviation facilities. According to the definition of ICAO, general aviation includes any civil aviation, excluding regular and irregular commercial air transport. Therefore, more than 20 years, this term covers business, private and sport flying and aerial work. In the early 90s the ICAO adopted, despite the protests of the International Association of Aircraft Owners and private pilots (IA AOPA), the amendment to Annex 6, are excluded from general aviation aircraft operation (Brady, T., 2000).
Since ICAO documents are advisory in nature, this amendment included in their legislation, not all states - members of the ICAO. Thus, the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) continues to refer to general aviation and civil aviation to be used for agricultural and aviation operations, the helicopter transporting cargo on external sling, to patrol the pipelines and power lines, aerial reconnaissance, cargo delivery in remote areas and air -cab. Thus, in the United States to adhere to certain general aviation adopted in Part II of Schedule 6 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago, 1944). And, judging by the fact that the United States is the world leader in the field of general aviation, this definition is the most economically justified. It should be emphasized that in China also stick to the original interpretation of the ICAO. General aviation can reduce public expenditure on training commercial pilots (CPL - commercial pilot license), the need for which the cost of training is constantly growing. The course of private pilots in many countries is a component of commercial pilot training program, so persons licensed PPL (private pilot license), it is not necessary to pass this part of the program again. The vast majority of commercial pilots the US and Europe have received initial training program PPL in general aviation. In Russia, due to legal incidents not only a shortage of personnel in civil aviation, but also higher than in Europe and the US, the cost of training commercial pilots (Knecht, W., 2012).
Trends in the global economy in recent years have been associated with changes in the geopolitical situation in the world. The processes of globalization of the world economy began to exert a decisive role in the domestic and foreign policies of states. According to various estimates, currently the capacity of the world market, associated with updating the general aviation fleet is about 20 thousand. Units of aircraft per year, with continuing decline in Aircraft Manufacturing companies of the American continent, where it is concentrated 70% of the world's general aviation fleet is more than 300 thousand aircraft. The annual turnover of the entire infrastructure of GA in the US is more than $ 45 billion and provided employment for more than half a million people. Changes in prices for oil and petroleum products, the ability or inability to continue to increase the capacity of roads and railways, and even risks of incidents and terrorist acts on regular routes, determine the demand for general aviation airplanes. However, the trend of increasing demand for general aviation airplanes can manifest itself only when the growth of general business activity in the global economy.
Bednarek, J., & Bednarek, M. (2003). Dreams of flight: General aviation in the United States. College Station: Texas A & M University Press.
Brady, T. (2000). The American aviation experience: A history. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois University Press.
Crane, D., & Crane, D. (1997). Dictionary of aeronautical terms (3rd ed.). Newcastle, Wash.: Aviation Supplies & Academics.
Knecht, W. (2012). Predicting general aviation accident frequency from pilot total flight hours. Washington, D.C.: Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aerospace Medicine.
Rhoades, D. (n.d.). Evolution of international aviation: Phoenix rising (Rev. ed.).
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