Good Literature Review About Obesity’s Role

Type of paper: Literature Review

Topic: Diabetes, Carbohydrate, Obesity, Diet, Body, Risk, People, Aliens

Pages: 9

Words: 2475

Published: 2021/01/30

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Literature Review: Low Carbohydrate Diet’s effect on Your Chances of Becoming Diabetic

Introduction
Millions have been diagnosed with the disease diabetes in the United States of America. Diabetes is a disease generally associated with a high-sugar level. Apart from sugar level, other factors need to be considered in improving the situation and preventing the chances of obtaining diabetes. The nature of diet and the level of consumption of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamin rich food, and water should be important as well. For this reason, this paper will focus on the relationship between the risk of being diagnosed with diabetes and the level of carbohydrate intake. Studies show that low intake of carbohydrates minimizes the chances of obtaining diabetes. As discussed, the level of glucose in the body is what determines the nature of diabetes, thus its prevention. Arguably, certain levels of carbohydrate intake hinders the level of glucose tolerance in the body, which could be a factor as well. As Takizawa et al. (2003) argues high level intake of carbohydrates presents an inverse relationship between the plasma glucose and insulin. This would increase the chance of being diagnosed with diabetes, especially for anyone falling under the category of obese.
Much has been said about diabetes and factors that revolve around the disease. Diet is an important aspect, especially for people with low-level sugar diabetes, which plays a leading role in ensuring proper health. However, when it comes to diet, a lot of factors need to be considered to ensure proper living of the diabetic patients. Low-level carbohydrate intake, to be precise, has a striking relation with diabetes. According to Elhayany et al. (2010) For this reason, this paper seeks to review existing research between the low intake of carbohydrates as well as its effect on diabetic people, and whether its intake increases it or decreases the chances of diabetes.

Literature Review

Tanenberg et al. (2004) argued that the level of obesity could be a key factor in increasing the chances of being diabetic. High intake of carbohydrates, being a leading factor in becoming obese. Tanenber et al. (2004) explains why obesity would increase the chances of an individual being diabetic. Further, the article explains the need for obesity management every time an individual is diagnosed with diabetes. This does not only mean that many diabetic individuals are obese. Obese individuals must have their weight constantly checked once diagnosed with diabetes. Arguably, managing obesity for diabetic people comes with the reduction in carbohydrate intake, with highly rich in fiber carbohydrates recommended for such individuals. Tanenberg et al. (2004) recommends proper management of diet to ensure health management during weight loss, however, the author accepts the fact that other types of diets should be put into consideration as well. Low fat consumption and low energy giving food are recommended to replace the energy.
In support of this, Takizawa et al. (2003) explains the relationship between carbohydrate intake, obesity, glucose level of the plasma and the risk that each possess on a pregnant woman. The findings indicated that the intake of low carbohydrates resulted to deterioration in glucose level, which is attributed to the fact that insulin secretion is minimized as well. This can be associated with diabetes mellitus, which is caused by minimum secretion of insulin due to low levels of blood glucose. Thordarso & Søvik (2005) explains this concept as a short term effect, which results to increased insulin sensitivity, due to loss of body fats. However, on a long-term basis, low carbohydrate intake results to fall in insulin resistance, which arguably increases the chance of being diagnosed with diabetes. From the research, much can be deduced with the level of insulin resistance playing a vital role. Low carbohydrate diet, in conjunction with low fat intake, can be of much importance to the body in a short term. In addition, (Thordarso & Søvik, 2005) explains that Type 2 diabetes requires low intake of fat and carbohydrate, which is a factor that the patients are advised for the purpose of healthy living. This arguably reflects the nature of “healthy” living that an individual should adopt in the quest to prevent diabetes. As discussed earlier, intake of less carbohydrates as a recommendation for Type 2 diabetic reduces the severeness level of the ailment, as well serves as a general measure on improvement of the body system for those with or without diabetes.
Dyson 2008 explains that there is less to study on the people without diabetes when it comes to low level intake of carbohydrates. However, this category of people have showed a trait in significant weight loss that comes with consumption of hypo caloric low carbohydrates over a short period. Dyson further conducts a research on Type 2 diabetic people, relating their level of hypo caloric carbohydrate intake with their weight, cardiovascular risk and glycaemia. Dyson 530 further explains that the research was only based on a short term period, which he drew conclusions from. However, from the result, the article argues that reduced level of carbohydrate intake make it safe for people with type 2 diabetes. This is due to the fact that reduced intake of carbohydrate increases the availability of body glucose, which in turn results to effective oxidation of the body. This also explains the level of fat storage, which explains the body loss. Despite less intake of carbohydrates with people without diabetes type 2, there are traces that show “safe” and healthy living for non-diabetic people if at all they adopt low intake of carbohydrate. Arguably, the article supports that low carbohydrate intake is effective for only short term periods and often effective for people with diabetes Type 2.

Traditional Carbohydrate diet

On a study conducted on women, Pulse 2006 further explains that the risk of high level of intake of carbohydrate doubles the CHD risk. Previous studies that showed an increased chance of heart disease and coronary associated diseases, today, the glycaemia risk factor needs to be considered. In the article, Doctor Kendrick further argues that doctors should not recommend food that are highly rich in carbohydrates, since it increases the chance of obtaining glycaemia problems. Instead, vegetables and fruits should replace carbohydrates, both for diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Arora & McFarlane (2005) further explain the controversy as seen in the Pulse (2006). The article argues that high level of carbohydrate intake could result to increased chances of making the diabetic situation ”worse”, increase the chances of obesity, hypertension, risk of CVD as well as dyslipidemia. As a result, the article advocates for other ”replacement” of carbohydrates, including traditional form of foods, given that carbohydrate is a prima facie in secretion of insulin. Arguably, adopting traditional methods, traditional meaning consumption of low fat carbohydrates, ensures proper body metabolism, low fat intake as well as reduces the chance of obtaining diabetes.
According to Dabelea & Harrod (2013) Childhood nutrition plays a big part towards becoming obese and acquiring diabetes in childhood. According to research findings, maternal diabetes was established to be the primary cause of T2D among the youths,it was established to account for 50% of T2D. Additionally, it normally trigger a trans-generational vicious cycle of being overweight and diabetic.
Arora & McFarlane (2005) explains the concept behind the low intake of low level carbohydrates as not only put an individual further from the risk of obtaining diabetes, but also reduces the chances of obtaining high blood pressure and metabolic syndrome as well. Through research, the article explains the impact of taking traditional carbohydrates as a short-term, with the risk of diabetes and obesity trait witnessed mostly amongst the women participants. Notably, there is no level of carbohydrate intake that can be considered as low, however, it is recommended to be less than 20 calories a day with amount of less than 50-60 grams per day or even as low. With this in mind, it is important to note that weight change is governed by two aspects: the level of calories intake and balance as well as macronutrient composition in food. As explained from other articles, Arora & McFarlne (2005) explains that carbohydrate determines the level of insulin secretion in the body, with carbohydrate restriction being the traditional way of treating diabetes. However, to be precise, the article advocates for count diet the level of carbohydrate intake as well as adjust the level of insulin intake in type 1 diabetes. Accordingly, type 2 diabetes does not necessarily require carbohydrate restriction, although it can be advocated for with minimum emphasis. In addition, following the need to control macronutrient composition, the article explains that its consumption needs to be controlled for the purpose of glycemic control. All in all, the article gives precise measures on the importance of weight maintenance, despite it lasting for a short term. Any individual should adhere to traditional ways of carbohydrate consumption for the purpose of healthy and nutritious living (Accurso et al. 2008).
Accurso et al. (2008) supports the concept put across by Arora & McFarlane (2005) and argues that metabolism syndrome in people diagnosed with diabetes type 2 can be improved by reductions in dietary carbohydrate and fats. According to Accurso et al, in as much as pharmacology is the most reliable form in treating diabetes type 2, still, the need to restrict carbohydrate and fat intake plays a leading role. Arguably, the restrictions in the nature of food consumed by an individual with diabetes type 2 aids in reducing the level of insulin fluctuations that might be witnessed in the patient’s body. On the contrary from other authors, Accurso et al argues that the nature of carbohydrate restriction does not purposely result to weight loss. However, carbohydrate intake restriction results to improved metabolism, which then ensures that there are no excess fats in the body and eventually result to weight loss. On a lighter note, the article explains the importance of low level of carbohydrate consumption, first being the improvement of glycemic control, thus, minimizes the fluctuation of insulin secretion in the body. Second, it reduces the intake of fat intake, and as described earlier, it results to weight loss. Thirdly, it reduces the risk of CVD and improve metabolism syndrome as well. Clearly, the article explains the importance of maintaining nutritious lifestyle, for people with or without diabetes. From this, low intake of carbohydrates would minimize the risks associated with enormous weight gain as well as the risk of obtaining diabetes.
Upon a research to understand the moderate income of carbohydrate to that of low level intake of carbohydrate in relation to diabetes type 2, Saslow et al. (2014) concluded that low intake of carbohydrate diet was more effective in comparison. Arguably, it was a result of improvement in glycerin level in the body, which reflected to effective level of glycerin in the body. However, the article argues that this comparison was for short term period, coupled with medication that sought to improve the health condition of individuals diagnosed with diabetes type 2. In addition, the article does not necessarily call for diet restrictions of individuals with type 2, however, for patients who are obese as well are highly recommended to take measures when it comes to their diet. With this in mind, low carbohydrate intake proves to be efficient for individuals not only diagnosed with diabetes, but for those who are at risk of obtaining it.

Conclusion

The peer reviewed articles discussed above have given opinions on the level of carbohydrate intake in relation to diabetes. Notably, diabetes mellitus type 2 has been the focal point, given that type 2 requires high level of maintenance when it comes to diet, especially the level of carbohydrate intake. Despite the fact that no long term measure has been put in addressing the relationship between carbohydrate intake and diabetes, still, short term results are worth endurable given the level of effectiveness that it possesses on humanity. The above articles display the effect that low level carbohydrate intake portrays, which not only improves the chance of not obtaining diabetes, but improves the general metabolism as well. There are high risks of poor health associated with high intake of carbohydrates and fats as well, which include obesity, high blood pressure as well as diabetes. As noticed, many women portray this trait and are at the risk of getting diagnosed with diabetes, which can be attributed to the poor feeding habits as well. However, more research need to be done on the long-term effects of low level carbohydrate intake, to acknowledge its importance on the human body as well. Arguably, the form of diabetes in question whenever low intake of carbohydrate is recommended can be argued to be mellitus, with type 2 being affected by this form, of “medication”, especially in obese patients.

References

Accurso, A., Bernstein, R. K., Dahlqvist, A., Draznin, B.,
Feinman, R. D., Fine, E. J., &Volek, J. S. (2008). Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal. Nutrition & Metabolism, 51-8. Doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-5-9
Arora, S. K., & McFarlane, S. I. (2005). The case for low
Carbohydrate diets in diabetes Management. Nutrition & Metabolism, 216-9. Doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-2-16
Boden, G., Sargrad, K., Homko, C., Mozzoli, M., & Stein, T. P.
(2005). Short-Term Effects of Low-Carbohydrate Diet Compared with Usual Diet in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(6), I44
Dabelea, D., & Harrod, C. S. (2013). Role of developmental over
Nutrition in pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes. Nutrition Reviews, 71S62-S67.
Dyson, P. A. (2008). A review of low and reduced carbohydrate
diets and weight loss in type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Human Nutrition & Dietetics, 21(6), 530-538. doi:10.1111/j.1365-277X.2008.00896.x
Elhayany, A., Lustman, A., Abel, R., Attal-Singer, J., & Vinker,
S. (2010). A low carbohydrate Mediterranean diet improves cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes control among overweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 1-year prospective randomized intervention study. Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism, 12(3), 204-209. doi:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2009.01151.x
Fresh controversy over dietary advice. (2006). Pulse, 66(43), 3.
Saslow, L. R., Kim, S., Daubenmier, J. J., Moskowitz, J. T.,
Phinney, S. D., Goldman, V., & Hecht, F. M. (2014). A Randomized Pilot Trial of a Moderate Carbohydrate Diet Compared to a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet in Overweight or Obese Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus or Prediabetes. Plos ONE, 9(4), 1-11. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091027
Takizawa, M., Kaneko, T., Kohno, K., Fukada, Y., & Hoshi, K. (2003). The relationship between carbohydrate intake and glucose tolerance in pregnant women. Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 82(12), 1080-1085. doi:10.1046/j.1600-0412.2003.00187.x
Tanenberg, R., Bode, B., Lane, W., Levetan, C., Mestman, J.,
Harmel, A. P., & Mastrototaro, J. (2004, December). Use of the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System to guide therapy in patients with insulin-treated diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 79, No. 12, pp. 1521-1526). Elsevier.
Thordarson, H., & Søvik, O. (2005). Dead in bed syndrome in
Young diabetic patients in Norway. Diabetic Medicine, 12(9), 782-787.

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