Good Literature Review About Using Levels Of Analysis To Understand The Influence Of Violent Media On Aggression
Social Sciences and Psychology
Violent media is being marked as accountable for escalating aggression and violence among its users. The following statement is very prominent in communication framework that has created piles of research studies regarding impact of violent media on the audiences - What media do with the audiences, and what audiences do with the media. There are certain theories which establishes a prominent relationship tween the media texts and the audiences analysing them. However, there are other perspectives which map impact of the media images in the form of videos, photos, films, animations, etc. on the people utilizing and decoding these texts. Furthermore, various eminent scholars and researchers have analysed the different perspectives of the impact of the violent media on the normal life of the audiences. Various reception studies and audience research studies have revealed diverse dimensions of the impact and the influence itself. Also, certain research studies have been put within a dynamic framework of research studies to observe and conclude certain philosophies and ideologies that describe the impact of violent media on aggression through biological, environmental, emotional, etc. perspectives of the audiences.
A number of studies have been done to study the impact of media violence on aggression by prominent scholars and researchers, from time to time. Also, certain studies have precisely focussed on the diverse perspectives of the audience reception which determine different levels of analysis to measure the impact of the violent media content on aggressive behaviour of the audiences. Levels of Analysis Framework provide the researchers with an apt structure that reflects a precise and authentic understanding of the impact of media violence on the behaviours of the audiences (people).
Levels of Analysis Framework
Most of the people believe that media does not have any kind of negative impact on them. According to Whitman, about 88% of the people responded that media do not have affected them, public opinion polls (Whitman, 1996). Systematic empiricism represents a significant feature to study behaviour in psychology (The 11 Myths of Media Violence, 1968). Psychologists try to reveal the impact of media violence on audiences through the perspectives of Biological, Psychological and environmental dilemmas in order to get a detailed and systematic understanding of the processes. Level of analysis framework provides a dynamic structure to study the behaviour and the changes associated with it, and even the influence of certain external or internal factors that can manipulate or change the behavioural tendencies in a person. Let’s describe the ‘level of analysis of framework’ through the following example of ‘Aggression.’ Only one level of analysis is insufficient to explain the impact of violence on the human behaviour; all the three aspects of contribute to the better understanding of ‘Aggression.’ Also, there are other aspects that define a systematic attention of the people towards media image or text in order to absorb a definite quantity of the material that can shape their perception and behaviour (Passer & Smith, 2009).
Biological Level of Analysis
Biological Level of Analysis deciphers the biological functioning of the human body that undergoes definite changes on being exposed to violent media. Precise studies regarding the behaviour (changes) can be examined through neurotransmitters, brain systems, hormonal, and genetic observations. Biological etiquettes play an important role in manipulating the tendency of behavioural aspects of the individuals on exposure to strong media content (Myers, 2000). Evolutionary factors are also important to study the behaviour changes. All behaviour is reflected through the biological changes that marked the importance of observing the very aspect. For example, some people are genetically more vulnerable to effects of medial violence, and aggressive content may release or disinhibit aggressive behaviour in such individuals. For example, pornography plays a vital role to increase aggressive behaviour of men towards women (Kingston, 2009). Also, a good example of fat rat – like a rat eats and eats as its main brain part is damaged, does not feels it full and it continuously goes on eating. Similar is the case with aggression in humans.
Psychological Level of Analysis
In psychological level of analysis, the psychologists look at the cognitive perspective, addressing thought, planning, memory etc. as behaviour influencers. Psychodynamic and humanistic aspects can reveal the importance (and relevance) of behaviour change due to violent media among the audiences (Passer & Smith, 2013). For example, At most of the times people eat due to stress, habit or boredom, and at times people carry certain eatables like chocolates that make them feel happy and joyous, which affect their performance also. This represents the psychological aspects of the people that manipulate their tendencies in order to behave in a certain way. Same thing happens when the people are exposed to violent media content. It directly hits the cognitive strata of the people to radiate aggression.
Environmental / Social Level of Analysis
Environmental / Social Level of Analysis indicate the influences in which a stimulus is responsible for behavioural changes in a socio-cultural and environmental context. It elucidates shaping of physical and social environment that directly affects the thought, feelings and perceptions of the people. For instance, cultural practices influence food preferences and norms, and establish a unique ambience to present a desirable possibility that can influence behaviour (Anderson, 2004). Violent Environment and Social setting is again a very important aspect to illustrate its impact on aggressive behavior of the individuals. For example, the case of Ray and Kira depicts the representation of cultural and social influence on them as they were brought up in a specific environment with unique religious values and social customs. This denotes the Environmental / Social level of Analysis.
Levels of analysis represent a systematic examination of impact of violent content of media on the aggressive behaviour of the individuals (audiences). Strictly speaking, it implies a best structure that describes better opportunities to study the changes in behaviour in context to the content of the media to which the audience is exposed. The analysis involves the new dimensions that evoke a supportive podium in order to establish a sincere relationship between the media content and the audiences. There are three general aspects through which the media influence on the aggressive behaviour is being studied, including Biological Level of Analysis, Psychological Levels of Analysis, and Environmental / Social Levels of Analysis. These Levels of Analysis offer better understanding of the impact of Violent Television content, Violent Video games etc. on the minds and behaviour of the audiences in a very appropriate manner.
Broadly speaking, interpretation of media images require an apt understanding of the philosophies embedded in the content. Also, there are many studies that establish a significant aspiration of violent media impact on the audiences. Many reception studies and audience research studies have revealed the influence of the media images on the behaviour of children and adults in a diverse fashion. Moreover, the structural etiquettes of the Levels of Analysis Framework describe an authentic phenomenon of understanding media impact on the behaviours of the audiences.
Anderson, C. 2004. Violence in Media: its effects on children. Issues in Parenting Education. Victorian Parenting Centre and Young Media Australia. State Lowa University.
Passer, M. W & Smith, R. E. (2013). Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour, (1st Australian Edition)., North Ryde, Australia: McGrawhill-Australia, 2013
The 11 Myths of Media Violence, 1968. University of Western Sydney under Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968