Good Review Of Psychological State Of Consumer Behaviour Article Review Example
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Article 1: The Differential Effects of Celebrity and Expert Endorsements On Consumer Risk PerceptionsBackground Celebrity endorsements are at present common in advertisements for nearly any kind of service or product available. Overall, celebrity endorsers reference the use of individuals with robust public recognition and employ the recognition on behalf of a consumer good by being integrated with an advertisement. The use of celebrity in the advertisement has led to the associative individual likeability, attractiveness, believability, and reputation towards the product under endorsement. Biswas, Biswas, and Das, (2006) sought to investigate the differential effects of celebrity and expert endorsements on consumer risk perceptions using source model theories, theoretical processes of internalization versus identification, and technology-oriented products. The increased prevalence of celebrity and expert endorsement in advertisements benefits the businesses by making the advert increasingly attractive, aiding brand recognition and enhancing message recall. Therefore, Biswas and colleagues aimed to examine the difference and effects in consumer risk perceptions between expert and celebrity endorser in the advertisement. Companies of the contemporary society use the perception of their brand and image to enter new product lines and classes by using transfer properties.Scope and Objective The marketing company is obligated to demonstrate fundamental elements of effective communication such as encoding, source, action, decoding, transmission, and feedback. Celebrity endorser (CE) versus expert endorser (EE) is hypothesized to be more effective in limiting consumer risk perceptions. Thus, objectively, the authors attempt to show how differential effects of celebrity compared to expert endorsements are likely to provide product contingency. Besides, it focuses on the attitudes of respondents based on likability, trustworthiness, and, believability towards the endorser, and judgments of respondents based on their risk perceptions towards the endorsed product or service rather than towards the endorser. The questions of when and how there might be differential effects between expert and celebrity endorsement back the objectivity of the paper.Methodology The article was based on three studies to examine the differential effects of celebrity and expert endorsements on consumer risk perceptions. The first study used a source model to hypothesize how high technology-oriented products provide stronger effects n expert endorsement as opposed to celebrity endorsements in limiting the consumer risk perception. The researchers used a computer methodology to select products for testing. A sample of 31 participants was used to rate the reputation, creditability and popularity of seven randomly chosen celebrities. Hypothesis testing employed 3 (endorser type: CE versus EE versus NCNE) × 2 (consumer product knowledge: high versus low). The participants responded to questionnaires and described the scenario by reviewing the advertisement. In the second study, a total of 42 participants were used based on a similar approach to study 1. In the last experiment, the study employed 2 (type of endorser; CE v. EE) ×2 (congruency of product with CE: high versus low) × 2 (technology-oriented product: low v. high) (Biswas, Biswas, & Das, 2006). A total of 210 students from major universities were used as participants and were randomly assigned to the tone of the eight treatment conditions.Results The researchers used ANOVA to test the hypotheses. The findings show that EE is more effective than CE for high technology-oriented products and the effectiveness increases with the increase of consumer knowledge. Study 2 shows that respondents exhibited elevated perceived risks for CE versus EE for high technology products. However, low technology products indicated no effect on the type of endorser or consumer knowledge interaction. The final study replicates part of findings of studies 1 and 2. It shows that endorser-product congruency potentially plays a significant role in neutralizing the differential effects of experts versus celebrity endorsers for a given type of risks.Implication for Consumer Behaviour Theory and Practice Purchasing of products involves perceived risks and marketers should focus on reducing the level of such risks. The three studies imply that endorsement process based on internalization works better in reducing risks for high technology-oriented products. According to Biswas et al. (2006), high technology products by an expert are more effective in reducing perceived risk than celebrity endorsements. However, for low technology products the differential effects do not apply. The source model theory provides that the effectiveness of celebrity and expert endorsements are equally effective for different product categories. Biswas and colleagues provide support for the managerial attractiveness of expert endorsements for high technology products targeting knowledgeable consumers.Limitations The researcher used experimental study design that introduced an artificial scenario in lab testing. However, the use of students as study subjects in classroom settings provided greater control for the experimental conditions. Also, the use of the treadmill in experiment two may raise questions as to whether it may be viewed as in isolation.Conclusion The determination of effects of celebrity and experts endorsements on perceived risks based on the congruency between product and endorse, knowledge, ad technology orientation of product provides an interesting platform for theory and practice. Suggestively, the study results are instrumental in improving advertisement effectiveness depending on the targeted clients and nature of the product. Therefore, every company can use the results to determine the appropriate endorser based on their product lines and targeted customers.Article 2: Effects of Consumer Perceptions of Brand Experience on the Web: Brand Familiarity, Satisfaction and Brand TrustBackground Online transactions are rapidly gaining popularity with traditional shopping facing outpace. The need to create a customer experience synonymous with a particular website brand is, thus gaining recognition as a key platform for online business performance. The e-tailors are also on the verge to persuade the behaviour of consumers through atmospheres and services (Ha & Perks, 2005). The backbone of this article investigated consumer behaviour internet-based marketing and it aims to address issues of whether there existed a dissimilar correlation between brand trust and brand experience or whether there exists an indirect relationship via brand familiarity or satisfaction.Scope and Objective The question of a direct relationship between brand experience and brand trust or indirect relationship via satisfaction or brand familiarity has been left unanswered by previous research (Ha & Perks, 2005). The objective is to describe the relationship between satisfaction, brand familiarity, brand trust, considering the effects of brand experience. Consumer’s experience plays an instrumental role in building a lasting and successful business on the internet; thus experiences may critically influence on brand trust.Methodology The researchers employed a survey-based procedure for data collection using e-mail on the internet. The pretesting used traditional comprehension and validity to determine in case the directions for completing the survey were precise. A total of 461 interested responses were received, and questionnaires delivered randomly. In total, 203 participants completed surveys and the study variables measured using five-point Likert items.Findings Reliability analyses of the scales provided that a variety of brand experiences increases brand familiarity showing consistency with previous results. Accordingly, 90 percent of online shoppers favor good customer experience to be a significant determiner when choosing the preferred website for making purchases. In a nutshell, improving a customer’s experience results to higher website familiarity. The use of online transactions offers platforms of assigning new customers, thus providing a diversity of cookies to current customers and showing a positive customer experience with the website.Implications The findings of Ha and Perks (2005) are very interesting and offer a significant contribution to the management of businesses in the digital age. Managers can take note that website marketers should monitor and evaluate the interests of customers, foster effective communication, and provide continuous cookies where the customers can provide their feedback and share their experiences. Customers are often interested in the type of information that persuades them to make online purchases. Individual interacting with a 3-D computer that provides virtual experience also enhances customer experience that in turn leads to greater website familiarity.Limitations The most challenging part of the research provides that the variables of familiarity, customer experience, brand trust, and satisfaction often undergo some changes with time considering their temporal nature. Further, the research did not use a bigger sample of various web categories and the chosen only represented leading website companies. This limits the study as it results in biases of participant selection.Conclusion Internet technological innovations have led to the emergence of business globalization trend. The business strategies are constantly changing, and the digital consumers are agitating towards online shopping for most products and services. Therefore, the findings of the article provide that various website providers should embrace customer experience to increase familiarity of their website.Article 3: Social Class, Market Situation, and Consumers' Metaphors of (Dis) EmpowermentBackground For the last decades, social class has been used to offer a fruitful arena for investigating the patterns of consumption. However, the use of social class faded off in the 1970s getting replaced by daily consumption practices rather than individual consumers. Therefore, Henry provided an investigation to explore the role of (dis)empowerment as a central phenomenon of social class. According to Henry, experience of power, is invested to shape self-concept that affects day consumption practices. The primary mechanism lies in embodied preferences and not just status symbols signifying the use of consumption patterns. The reaction to a situation expresses the not only product of rational evaluation but also a chronically inculcated comprehensions integral sense of being (Henry, 2005). According to the author, self-concept provides an aspect of habitus reflecting that the conditioned self takes on an embodied trait that contributes to actions, thoughts, and reactions of feeling right.Scope and Objective Self-perceptions range from potent actor through the impotent reactor as well as future expectations. Consumption arenas used in the study, including financial planning practices, money management, and priorities provides the broad scope of understanding social class and disempowerment. Empirically, the article sought to determine the approach by which the market shapes a sense of personal empowerment and the manner it flows into consumption practice.Methodology The researcher employed depth interviews using a total of 23 participants selected from informant’s homes. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. Henry sought to classify the participants into distinct classes using Goldthorpe's social classification. The participants incorporated of the professional working class and manual working class based on work and market situations. The interview used a semi-structured guide to collect data based on specific questions. The collected data was analyzed using the interpretative analytic procedure, drawing on the transcriptions and in-home observations to identify systematic difference patterns.Study Findings The major differentiating themes between social classes are related and subsumed within the prospects of empowerment conceptualization. The common variables differentiating social classes included economic status and power mix. Besides, a financial focus that references focus on the creation of financial stability and financial growth and development also provides elements of class disempowerment. The study established that differing income potential contributes to distinctive expectations (Henry, 2005). The results indicate that the YWs were close to peak earning position for their occupants; however, the YPs could reasonably expect a growth of income alongside progression in their careers. Distinctive perceptions also play a significant role in investing approach employed by the YPs, as the findings indicate.Implications for Theory and Practice The consumer is a rational economic man, according to utility theory. The behaviours of consumers range from factors influencing the consumer and broad range of consumption. The research implies that consumers should recognize their needs, evaluate alternatives, and search for information and finally purchase. Managers should also consider consumption patterns rather than social class when marketing their products. However, a social class is a significant element of consideration in terms of product consumerism.Limitations Henry confined his study to males and in a narrow age range. However, the social class includes gender balance and wide age ranges that provide an unbiased selection of subjects.Conclusions Essentially, self-perception is considered a lifestyle and social class and it plays a crucial role in the approach taken by the consumer to survey markets and their reactions. Financial practices results from the consumer decisions, therefore, analyzing class based on power phenomenon assists in teasing out a significant aspect of habitus. Therefore, it is prudent for managers and to note that the effect of disempowerment on consumers and importance of social class when considering consumerism.Article 4: Influence of Audio Effects on Consumption Emotion and Temporal PerceptionBackground The use of education media and music in films has been established to influence attention and cognition. The applications of the findings have been incorporated in TV and films production industries. Music structure stimulates the brain nerves provoking emotional responses. Besides, the association between individual music preferences and music complexity increases to shape human beings. According to Lin and colleague, consumers under the influence of positive emotions are associated with overestimation of consumption time. Therefore, Lin and Wu (2006) adopted a computer graphic design tool for control measures of previously uncontrolled variables in actual stores. The researchers attempted to demonstrate the relationship between music in retail stores and positive consumption emotion of consumers.Scope and Objective Retail stores have adopted the use of music to provide stimulation for positive consumption emotion. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of audio factors on individual consumption emotion, and time perception. The authors reference that emotion directly influences the perceptions of consumers, evaluations and behaviours. Emotions are a crucial mediator of time perception as well as service evaluation.Methodology The researchers designed a virtual reality electronic appliance store to eradicate uncontrolled variables existent in actual stores and enhance research validity. Using the objective standards for assessing music volume and radio broadcasting type variables, a pretest was administered for proper music type and familiarity. A total of 128 participants of both genders were provided with laptops for viewing of virtual retail stores. Five songs were picked randomly based on manipulated radio stimuli, and the subjects were asked to view the film and describe their current mood. Researchers used open-ended questionnaires to estimate time perception.Findings The study results indicated that retail stores may use joyful music for stimulating consumption emotion. However, sad music elicits negative emotions and reduces consumption. A consumer poses negative emotion in retail stores broadcasting sad music, which leads to an overestimation of time perception.Implications for Consumer Behaviour, Theory and Practice According to the results, retail stores that adopt joyful music produces positive emotions resulting in underestimation of time perception unlike sad music playing stores. Therefore, a business should integrate audio stimuli to offer emotion formation for the customers. This influences consumer behaviours and tends to underestimate time perception leading to more sales.Study Limitations The experimental study that used virtual electronic appliances store was less applicable to the actual retail store realism. This created a gap in comparison to real stores that might have led to the deviation of data in the experimental results.Conclusion The use of internet has offered a great degree of interaction and audio virtual effects. This has made it a significant communication platform, searching and information sharing. The use of joyful music in retail stores has demonstrated significant positive effects of consumer time perception. The researchers provide interesting experimental results that demonstrate the theoretical and practical implications of audio music in enhancing positive emotions in retail stores. Therefore, it is prudent for practicing retailers and other businesses to implicate these findings in their businesses for increased sales.Article 5: Promoting brand benefits: the role of consumer psychographics and lifestyleBackground Effective marketing communication is the fundamental strategy for operating a successful business in the modern world. However, it must acknowledge the association between the brand and the values of consumption or benefits to the consumers. Customer is the most important element of business success, and their varied composition must be considered. Consumers products based on specified and individualized benefits, thus reacts differently to marketing communication emphasizing the need of selected brand paybacks. Ulrich, Orth, McDaniel, Shellhamme, (2004) adopts a psychographic and benefits segmentation approach to the beer industry and provides a robust analysis of consumption values.Scope and Objective The study investigated the relationships between consumer brand preferences, consumer lifestyle and brand benefits.Methodology The researchers collected data from consumers in the Pacific Northwest of U.S.A. where the adult were randomly selected from the consumer panel until 350 responses were completed. The respondents were provided with questionnaires that measured preferences for crafted beer brands, consumer lifestyle, behavioural and demographic characteristics. A total of 301 questionnaires that were fully completed were then used to analyze the data using cluster analysis.Findings The results from correlation coefficients that were computed to describe the relationship between the variables indicated that the strength of the relationship between benefits variables and brand preference was positive. The results show that there is a clear additional dimension of brand benefit that consumers seek than just functional quality.Implications The dimensions of brand benefits are identified to drive the preferences of consumers for craft beer brands. In practice, this implies that managers should design their brands by selecting a communicating functional, social, price, positive or negative emotional benefits. A target market can be easily identified using the consumer knowledge segments that favor a specific brand.Conclusion Managers require information crucial for successfully tailoring brands to market segments. Therefore, marketing communications is essential in providing specific benefits that consumers within the segment require. Developing deeper insights into characteristics based on lifestyle supports managerial decision on the design of marketing communication.
Biswas, D., Biswas, A., & Das, N. (2006). The differential effects of celebrity and expert endorsements on consumer risk perceptions: The role of consumer knowledge, perceived congruency, and product technology orientation. Journal of Advertising, vol. 35, no. 2 pp. 17–31.
Ha, H., & Perks H. (2005). Effects of consumer perceptions of brand experience on the web: Brand familiarity, satisfaction and brand trust. Journal of consumer Behaviour, vol. 4, 6, 438-452.
Henry. P. C. (2005). .Social class, market situation, and consumers' metaphors of (dis)empowerment. Journal of Consumer Research.
Lin, C., & Wu, S. (2006). Influence of audio effects on consumption emotion and temporal
perception. The Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, Vol. 10, Num. 1
Ulrich R., Orth, M., McDaniel, T., Shellhamme, K. L. (2004). Promoting brand benefits: the role of consumer psychographics and lifestyle. Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 21 Iss 2 pp. 97– 108.
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