Good Staphylococcus Essay Example
The article provides good light on the MRSA. The research done in the article is comprehensive and elaborate. The researches have taken into account 36 different pork stores, collecting 395 raw pork samples. Out of these 7% showed the presence of MRSA in them. Although the number seems small, but the associated risk is too high. This is highly alarming and requires an immediate plan of action. The researchers recommend that a safer way of handling the pork must be devised (Science Daily, 2012).
Not much can be done in this regard as the bacteria in question are antibacterial resistant. Only measures that can be taken are proper hygiene and surveillance. The poultry workers should practice better aseptic conditions to ensure safety and quality. The poultry should be passed through proper tests before being used for human consumption so that it won’t cause any infection to the people.
Viruses and parasites do not cause food poisoning. However many bacteria do. Some of them are Campylobacter, Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, Norovirus (Webmd.com). Some molds and allergens also cause food poisoning in certain individuals. Though it varies from person to person according to their own susceptibilities. The severity of food poisoning will depend on the virulence of the bacteria or other microbe involved.
Food poisoning indeed is one of the commonest diseases that patients present with in the hospital setting. Almost every day some or the other person is suffering from food poisoning. According to the data given by the Food Standard Agency of UK, almost 500,000 cases of food poisoning are registered each year in UK due to known pathogens. The number will be double if unknown pathogens are also taken into consideration. Poultry meat was the commonest food agent that led to food poisoning, followed by fruits and vegetables (Food.gov.uk, 2015).
Davis, C. (2015). MRSA: Get Facts on This Staph Infection and MRSA Symptoms. MedicineNet. Retrieved 18 February 2015, from http://www.medicinenet.com/mrsa_infection/article.htm#mrsa_infections_facts
Food.gov.uk,. (2015). New UK food poisoning figures published. Retrieved 18 February 2015, from http://www.food.gov.uk/news-updates/news/2014/6097/foodpoisoning
Webmd.com,. (2015). Food Poisoning: Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, Recovery. Retrieved 18 February 2015, from http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/food-poisoning/food-poisoning
Tests to distinguish between different types of Staphylococcus:
Coagulase test: Coagulase test is used to differentiate between coagulase positive and coagulase negative bacteria. Bound coagulase or clumping factor is identified (microbeonline, 2012). Presence of coagulation represents coagulase positive bacteria whereas absence of coagulation depicts coagulase negative bacteria. Staph aureus shows coagulation, that is, it is coagulase positive. And Staph epidermidis and Staph micrococci do not coagulate. Thus they are coagulase negative (Fda.gov, 2015).
Lysostaphin test: This test is used to differentiate between staph aureus and staph micrococci mainly. The principle behind the test is presence of peptidoglycan in the cell wall of most of the Staphylococcus. Lysostaphin is an enzyme that cleaves the bonds between these peptides and thus causing automatic lysis of the cells (Catalog.hardydiagnostics.com, 2015). Staph aureus and Staph epidermidis give positive result for the test whereas Staph micrococci give negative test result.
Thermonuclease test: The test is mainly used to identify Staph aureus. It is a reliable, inexpensive and a fast test as compared to the other tests. It is highly specific and sensitive for Staph aureus mainly (CJ and LR, 2015). Staph aureus shows positive test results, whereas Staph micrococci and Staph epidermidis show negative test results.
Differentiating features of Staph aureus, Staph micrococci and Staph epidermidis:
Staph aureus: They are gram positive, appearing in clusters. They are round, smooth and creamy. They may be white or yellow in color.
Staph epidermidis: They are also gram positive and seen in clusters. They occur in smooth white colonies without haemolysis.
Staph micrococci: They are gram positive cocci occurring in tetrads. They can be yellow or pink in color.
Lowering the spread of Staphylococcus
Wounds, if any, should be kept covered properly to prevent bacterial inoculation.
Dressings and other medical procedures should be carried out maintaining proper hygiene. Aseptic environment should be kept.
Proper hand hygiene should be maintained. Hands should be washed with sanitizers and soaps along with warm water.
Personal items should not be shared among different persons to limit the spread of infection.
Clothes should be disinfected properly after being washed well. They should be exposed to sunlight as it is one of the best disinfectants.
People should be made aware about the consequences of staph infection so that they can take adequate care of themselves (idph.state.il.us, 2015).
Infections that can be caused by Staphylococcus
A wide range of infections can be caused by staphylococci ranging from superficial skin diseases to grave blood related diseases. Skin infections can ranging from abscess, impetigo, cellulitis and toxic shock syndrome. The skin infection may begin with a small pus filled eruption, further progressing into much worse skin conditions (Conrad, 2015).
Catalog.hardydiagnostics.com,. (2015). Lysostaphin Differentiation Disks for Staphylococcus and Micrococcus. Retrieved 18 February 2015, from https://catalog.hardydiagnostics.com/cp_prod/Content/hugo/LysostaphinDiffDisks.htm
CJ, S., & LR, P. (2015). Clinical laboratory evaluation of the thermonuclease test. - PubMed - NCBI.Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 18 February 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6805307
Conrad, M. (2015). Staph Infection: Symptoms and Staphylococcus Aureus Facts. MedicineNet. Retrieved 18 February 2015, from http://www.medicinenet.com/staph_infection/article.htm
Fda.gov,. (2015). BAM: Staphylococcus aureus. Retrieved 18 February 2015, from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm071429.htm
Idph.state.il.us,. (2015). Staph Prevention Recommendations for School. Retrieved 18 February 2015, from http://www.idph.state.il.us/health/infect/MRSA_School_Recs.htm
microbeonline,. (2012). Coagulase Test: Principle, procedure and interpretation - microbeonline. Retrieved 18 February 2015, from http://microbeonline.com/diagnostic-tests-biochemical-tests-coagulase-test/