Good The Scientific Evidence Of Organic Evolution Research Proposal Example

Type of paper: Research Proposal

Topic: Evolution, Theory, Nature, Evidence, Information, Selection, Natural Selection, Science

Pages: 10

Words: 2750

Published: 2020/12/01

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Introduction

Evolution is the alteration of nheritable traits of the biological populations over a series of generations. In biology, it means to observed organism’s changes, to the descent of a common ancestor and at a technical level to a gene frequency change over time. The processes lead to diversity over a large biological organization, including the molecular evolution’s level, individual organisms and the level of species (Gregory 2009). Each and every life on Earth originated from a common descent from a last universal ancestor, whose time of existence is approximated at 3.5-3.8 billion years ago. Repeated creation of new speciation, anagenesis and extinction throughout the history of evolution can be shown from the shared biochemical and morphological traits as well as shared DNA. Organic Evolution is the biological sequence of events that are involved in the process of evolutionary development of a taxonomic group or species of organisms. The main significance of evolutionary biology is to give a rational explanation for the intricate and extraordinarily complex organization of living organisms. To provide an explanation to identify a mechanism that leads to evolution and demonstrate its operation’s consequences. These consequences are the general laws of evolution, of which any system of an organism is a particular outcome.
This research purposes to further test and review the scientific evidences of organic evolution over the years. It analyzes the past theories, facts and evidences of organic evolution with an aim of achieving a clear understanding of the plants and animals evolution.

Background

Many scientists have over time depicted evolution as a fact and theory. Fact has been described to mean data, which is not absolute but confirmed to the extent that it can withhold provisional assent. On the other hand, a scientific theory is a clearly substantiated explanation of the given facts. The facts of evolution arise from the observation of current processes evidence from organisms’ imperfections recording a common historical descent, from transitions in the record of fossils. Theories after that provide a provisional description of these facts. According to Douglas j. Futuyma, biological evolution can be substantial or slight. It involves everything from the ineligible changes in different allies’ proportion of a population to successive alterations that start with the earliest proto-organism to bees, snails, dandelions, and giraffes (Futuyma, 1998). Evolution is one among many controversial and misunderstood concepts among the general public. It is an unfortunate situation since the all controversy surrounding evolution is completely unnecessary. Religion and science provide different approaches to understanding the earth and universe. However science, goes beyond statements and tests hypotheses, hence restricts itself to testable explanations.
As much has there has been great acknowledgment that the species’ origin has produced an effect both on philosophy and on science of our age that is without any parallel history of thought. To begin with it is essential to understand various theories some theories, for instance, the history theory of natural selections. It just involves observable fact that animals and plants are continuously engaged in a struggle for existence as described by Darwin. It simply means that in every generation the number of births is high than those who can survive. Therefore in the struggle for existence who shall survive? Preferably the most suitable and fit will survive while the weakest would succumb and die. The above according to Darwin is the natural selection best described as the ‘survival of the fittest’. Nature selects those individuals that o survive out of each generation (Lenski, 2000). The survivable individuals after that pass their qualities to the next generation that is their offspring as per the fixed laws of hereditary. These offspring, therefore, become better suited for the environment compared to their forefathers. It is because of additional beneficial qualities that happen to appear as a slight variations in the type of their ancestors. It is seized by the natural selection and transmission added to the next subsequent generation. The best understanding of the whole process would be achieved through comparing it to the analogous process of selection. In this case, cattle breeders and gardeners create their production, the same way these people select the best breeds for their production, is the nature, by the same selection. Slowly in a continuous pro it makes a variety of animal and plant species better to suit the external conditions of life.
Numerous cases of organism’s adaptation to their environment are the main observed facts to which an explanation is required (Bock, 2007). To give this explanation at least two field hypotheses are required.one is the intelligent design established in creation; while the other one is natural selection established during the innumerable ages of the past. If it would be shown that all animals and plants were created, then the intelligence design proof positive. It is suddenly introduced to their other life’s complex conditions; for it is quite impossible that any other cause apart from intelligence can be competent to adapt organisms to their environment suddenly. On the other side, if it could be established that a species was slowly transmuted to another it would proof natural selection’s presumptive. For example, certain adaptations may gradually be transformed into another set of adaptations in accordance with the changing circumstances requirements. This would be a proof of natural selection because it would then become a probable that natural selection might bring about many, or most of the adaptation cases that we often see. If so, parsimony law excludes the rival hypothesis of design intelligence. Hence the entire question as between natural and supernatural selection resolve themselves into this; where the species of animals and plants separately created, or they slowly evolved? For if they were created, the evidence of the design that is supernatural would remain irrefutable and unrefuted, and if they slowly evolved, that evidence is forever destroyed. Natural selection doctrine, therefore, depends highly on the organic evolution doctrine for its validity (Gregory, 2007). If the facts of organic evolution were to be developed then, there would be no one who could dispute that natural selection affected the adaptation to a greater degree. It is, therefore, necessary that the evidence is weighed in favor of organic evolution. If it is found to be wanting then the natural theologians of the day ought to stand. But if it is measurable, running over and shaken together then the natural theologians can no longer adhere to the arguments of writers such as Palley, Chalmers and Bell. Without violating the logical principle that is a separation of fetishism from science.
The main purpose of the research is to provide a clear understanding of the process of evolution among plants and animals. The research purpose to conduct an analysis of the predictive text that is the previous evidences. It would also subject some of the observable facts into test to proof it. The result of this is to provide a clear picture of the scientific evolutionary view to clear the controversy surrounding evolution. For instance the difference that come up in discussions done by the religious evolution theories and the scientific ones.
Additionally, this project will seek to establish the evolutionary history of horses and the members of the Equidae that horses belong. Horses were chosen for the main reason being that; it is much easier to discern the evolution in horses because they have observable traits. Also, differing traits in the members of the Equidae, define the evolutionary process more profoundly.
The research analyzes evolution as a fact not a theory and vice versa. Most of the scientists have stressed on the assumption that evolution is a fact that add weight of emphasis supporting evidence while rejecting the use of the term ‘Theory’. With the account that organisms descended with variations from the common ancestor; the historical reality of evolution is not and cannot be a theory, just as the fact about sun’s revolution. On the contrary, theories are statements that give the cause-effect relations. Therefore, one may argue that it is inconceivable to talk of evolution as a fact since it is a reference point in explanatory hypotheses. Therefore, one may conclude that evolution is neither a fact nor a theory but a set of theories applied to various casual questions.

Null Hypothesis

Organic evolution takes course through natural selection. Evidence of organic evolution is apparent and confirmed by the existence of fossils or rather the preserved remains of organisms once alive.

Predictions for the Outcome of the Hypothesis

Arguably, I concur with the fact that organic evolution is evident and apparent through fossilization of organisms that were once alive. I am of the opinion that organic evolution is accurate. Owing the fact that, when fossils of organisms believed to be of the same lineage are arranged chronologically based on their age. A continuous series of change from the parents to the offspring is detected (Baldwin, 2014). By focusing on particular traits of the organisms believed to be of the same lineage, one is predisposed to understanding that new changes to each subsequent predecessor has been added. In essence, each stage with the lineage has an additional feature that its predecessor or rather parent didn’t have (McGowran, 2014). Subsequent to undertaking the research that will be described in the hereunder. It is palpable that the research will indicate a continual series of change from the parents to the offspring within a given span of time (Cope, 2007). A good example that proves the existence of organic evolution is the evolution of Horse. Based on the historical records compiled in regards to the changes that have since been portrayed or rather unveiled by the horse species. It is substantial and undoubtable to say that organic evolution takes course gradually, but it is more apparent after a long period (Lull, 2001).
In the research that will be conducted in a bid to establish the truth regarding organic evolution later in this research, it is predictable that natural selection will be established as the tool. It acts an agent of change that brings out organic evolution, in the long run. Additionally the notion above is true. Artificial selections conducted in laboratory studies and domestication has demonstrated beyond a reasonable doubt that the selection produces considerable and substantial organic evolutionary change. It is evident from the change in traits apropos the species in question (Alfred, 2002).
Another prediction that will possibly turn out to be the truth is the fact that organisms with a common lineage have features common to all organisms in that group. Through anatomical experiments, scientist have been able to deduce that animals that belong to the same anatomical groups often exhibit shared ancestral qualities passed on by a common predecessor (Romanes, 2002). Also, when genes sequence of organisms’ perceived to originate from one particular ancestry is arranged. Those organisms believed to be related based on the fossil evidence acquired confirm to be more similar compared to those organisms that are related by far. The evidence of organic evolution will be confirmed through both the divergent and the convergent evolution that has since taken place.
Apparently, the research that will be done to proof the organic evolution later in this paper will also confirm the fact that organisms from a common ancestry have since diverged and changed to different species. Considering that this paper works to proof the presence of organic evolution along a sequel lineage of organisms that are of different species today. It is of the essence to denote that faults in the experiments undertaken will be inevitable. Exclusive and explicit occurrence in regards to evolution is inevitable (Pandis, et al., 2012). The theory of evolution is taking place through natural selection. Though perceived as the best explanation of organic evolution, it is of utmost to denote that experiments don in regards to the same has faults and unprecedented truth in it.
Considering that the hypothesis of this research maintains that organic evolution based on Darwin’s arguments often takes a course through natural selection. And that evidence of organic evolution is apparent and confirmed by the existence of fossils or rather the preserved remains of organisms once alive. The subject organisms in the experiment will certainly confirm organic evolution apparent through a change in their traits.
Figure showing the evolution of a Horse

Methodology

Organic evolution, as mentioned earlier in this paper, is a gradual process that work to change the organic structure of the orgasms in question (Lang, 2012). With that in mind, no imperative experiment can be completed within a short period and confirm organic evolution. With that said, the methodology that will be employed in this experiment will employ the use of mixed methods (incorporate both the quantitative and the qualitative data). The qualitative methods in this experiment will be undertaken through interviews with professionals in the field, observations, and focus groups. The data acquired will be tabulated and electronically stored as it awaits analysis. On the other hand, quantitative data will be used to collect measurable data that relates to the subjects under scrutiny.
Throughout this experiment, observable characteristics of the modern day horses will be recorded so that the data acquired by dating fossils will be compared directly with these observable features. Apparently, data that relates to dating fossils acquired from rock sediments will be recorded using both the quantitative and qualitative research methods. The sequel lineage of horses alongside their traits will be recorded by the use of mixed methods.
In this experiment, more focus will be given to qualitative research methods, through interviews and questionnaires, professionals in the field of organic evolution will be consulted. It will be done essentially to acquire diverse amount of information regarding organic evolution in horses. Once the information acquired through both qualitative and quantitative research methods have been acquired, the next step will be to create a database where information regarding horse evolutions will be categorically recorded. After feeding all the acquired information into a database, appropriate analytical tools will be employed to scrutinize the acquired data. The analytical tools that will be used include graphs and pie charts. One the data has been recorded, possible faults, and limitations to the research will be established and defined clearly prior to subjecting the data under scrutiny.
In addition to acquiring data related to the evolution of horses, the research that will be done will directly compare theories related to evolution. Particularly, Darwin's theory will be analyzed and compared to Pre Darwinian theories and natural selection. Though these theories do not concur fully, it will be of the essence to focus more on these theories as a way of retrieving arguments in favor to the hypothesis. Supportive arguments will then be analyzed during the discussions that will be done, after all, the required data have been assembled.

Summary and Conclusion

Evidence surrounding organic evolution do exist. However, some evidence remains controversial and unprecedented owing its proficiency to support the arguments put forth. In regards to those above, the consequent research will seek evidence by using both qualitative and quantitative methods. After making anticipated predictions, in regards to the hypothesis stated at the beginning of this research, the use of qualitative and quantitative methods will be employed in collecting the required data. The data recorded in a database will be subjected to scrutiny and analysis subsequently. Additionally, theories and concepts related to the subject will be analyzed as well. Analysis done will profoundly focus on horses and their evolutionary history.

References

"Gene flow". Understanding Evolution. The University of California, Berkely.
Alfred Wegener-Conference, Schidlowski, M., & IGCP Project 157. (2002). Early organic
Evolution: Implications for mineral and energy resources. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Baldwin, J. M. (2014). A New Factor in Evolution. Essential Readings in Evolutionary Biology,
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Bock, Walter J. (May 2007). "Explanations in Evolutionary theory." Journal of Zoological
Systematics and Evolutionary Research (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell) 45 (2): 89–103
Bowler, P. (2003). Evolution: the history of an idea. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cope, Edward Drinker. (2007). The Primary Factors of Organic Evolution. Gardners Books.
Futuyuma, D. J. (1998). Evolutionary biology. Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Associates.
Gregory, T. Ryan (January 2008). "Evolution as Fact, Theory, and Path" (PDF). Evolution:
Education and Outreach (New York:
Gregory, T. Ryan (June 2009). "Understanding Natural Selection: Essential Concepts and
Common Misconceptions". Evolution: Education and Outreach (New York
Lang, Z. H. A. N. G. (2012). Study on the Construction of Basic Ecological Network System in
Shanghai Based on the Organic Evolution Theory. Chinese Landscape Architecture, 10, 006.
Lenski, Richard E. (September 2000). "Evolution: Fact and Theory". Actionbioscience.
Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Biological Sciences. Retrieved 2014-08-27
Lull, R. S. (2001). Organic evolution. New York: Macmillan.
McGowran, B. (2013). Organic Evolution in Deep Time: Charles Darwin and the Fossil Record.
Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 137(2), 102-148.
Pandis, S. N., Donahue, N. M., & Robinson, A. L. (2013). Atmospheric evolution and chemical
Aging of organic particulate matter.
Romanes, G. J. (2002). The Scientific Evidences of Organic Evolution. London.

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