Nursing: Hypothermia Does Not Increase The Risk Of Infection: A Case Control Study – Research Papers Examples
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Research study critique
This research study critique embraces a thorough examination of pertinent elements of research practices. It examines reliability issues, literature search, methodology – design –tools; sample –ethics, hypothesis, external and internal validity, main results, strengths and limitations; discussions and recommendations and conclusion arrived at also references used to support the study. Importantly, this critique will be influenced by further research conducted by the author in evaluating the legitimacy of this study.
Nursing: Hypothermia does not increase the risk of infection: a case control study -
Research study critique
This document relates a research study critique pertaining to hypothermia. The contention of researchers in this study is that while hyperthermia may improve outcomes in patients who suffered traumatic brain injury if it persists longer than 48 hours it is not always true under all conditions. For example, in the acute phase, it was discovered that patients suffering from immense brain damage are most likely to develop infections. Precisely, when hypothermic treatment is extended over long periods it could create the medium through which certain organism thrive causing susceptibility to infections (Kamps, Bisschops, van der Hoven & Hoedemaekers, 2011).
More so, the digestive system, especially, the stomach, large and small intestines conducts selective decontamination. From a pathophysiological perspective this process facilitates reduction of infections occurring in the respiratory tract. These researchers’ intent was based on investigating the incidence of hyperthermia and normothermia treated infections as against those exposed to selective decontamination of the digestive (SDD) tract treatment (Kamps et.al, 2011). This critique will examine the extent to which these researchers were able to fulfill their purpose through application of scientific research methods.
Hyperthermia does not increase the risk of infection by Marlijn Kamps, Laurens LA Bisschops, Johannes G. van der Hoven, and Cornelia WE Hoedemaekers published 2011
Abstract / Identifying the Problem
Researchers began their reporting by using an abstract of the study at the beginning of the page. It contained a brief explanation of the topic and issues pertaining to it they were interested in investigating. Methods applied in conducting the investigation was also succinctly related to the reader. Subsequently an account of results was displayed. Ultimately, the conclusion was communicated to the reading audience.
Reliability in research practice is basically two fold .It accounts for reliable methods consistent with study type and design. It seeks to establish scientific research protocols compliance. Subsequently, the true score theory of measurement must be met in any research whether study it is quantitative or qualitative. This means that there must be no errors in measurement because measurement accuracy is key to establishing reliability. For example, in quantitative research the question is asked whether the formulas used in descriptive or inferential statistics are accurately measuring the concept. Whereas in qualitative reasoning it asks if the theory used is really applicable to the desires of the study (Franklin, 2012).
In this research study the authors applied many tools that can be considered as reliability measurements consistent with quantitative methodologies. For example, the SPSWS soft ware was used in facilitating the data analysis process. This software is expected to offer researchers reliable statistical. Therefore, any reliability issue arising from statistical measurements could be blamed on the software itself since no manual measurement was calculated. As such, ensuring that the measurements tendered in this software were accurate is the responsibility of each researcher on the team ( (Nieswiadomy, 2011).
Also, Chi -squire test of significance was used in calculating reliability in all qualitative data received in the study. It was applied to testing the hypothesis in determining accuracy of the null hypothesis in relationship to the stated hypothesis. These are all plausible measurements in compliance with scientific research protocol for establishing reliability in a research project. However, the true score theory of measurement postulates that ‘every measurement is an additive composite of two components: true ability (or the true level) of the respondent on that measure; and random error’ (Franklin, 2012, p.12). It cannot be proven when the measurements are scrutinized that considerations were made by either the researchers or software makers to address the random error criterion in establishing the true score.
An effective literature search adds tremendous value to research project bylatying the foundation for validation of the current study. This was a significantly sad omission for the study. It gave readers the impression that researchers were not interested in generalizing to other populations or testing the validity of their instruments and outcomes using similar studies. As such this feature could signal credibility compromised in this study because there is no suportive references. While there is a long 27 reference list at the end of the document, they pertained mostly to reviews and not actual studies conducted comparing hyperthermia treatment with selective decontamination of the digestive tract.
Methodology – Design –tools
Methodology is defined an organized, scientific theoretical approach adapted by a researcher to investigate specific issues of interest. It encompasses a developing a body knowledge such medicine and natural or social sceince. Often methodology also embraces exploration of concepts inclusive of phrases, paradigms, qualitative or quantitative. Pecisely, the focus is on theoretical foundations required for understanding the most appropriate set of tools or method to conduct a particular. Within the scientific framework methodology can be interpreted as selecting the best practice for conducting a research (Howell, 2013).
Here in this study pertaining to hyperthermia does not increase the risk of infection, the researcher chose a mixed method. Mixed methods are very effective if researcher desireto support data analysis with statistical interpretations. They showed evidence of adapting this methodology in stating and hypothesis and supporting its proof with statistical measurements. This is a very positive technique because it reduces biases which either qualitative or quantitative methodologies could produce when used independently.
According to Silverman (2011) a research design offers the blue print whereby the researcher will conduct the desired study. Specifically, a research design defines the type of study. Types of designs include descriptive, correlational, semi experimental, meta- analytic and review (Silverman, 2011). A case control study design was applied to this research. Case ontrol studies are used mainly in epidemiology when researchers want to establish infection control or disease incidences. From this perspective the research design is considered appropriate for the investigation
Sample – ethics
A sample is expected to be a representative subset of the population a researchers wishes to investigate. Precisely, it must contain elements of the population for validity and reliability clarification. There are different techniques applied in selecting as sample, which again could inculcate reliability and validity discrepancies. In this study researcher did not specify how sampling techniques used to select patient for this study. They mentioned the sample under the methods and material section. They were drawn from a population of patients with severe brain injury receiving hypothermic treatment for more than twenty four (24) hours. Controls were brain injury patients who did not receive hypothermic treatment (Kamps et. al, 2011).
With regards to sample ethics when recruiting subjects for a research projects no mention was made of receiving consent from patients. Researchers stated that they received permission to conduct the research. This was obtained from the local ethical committee. It is not known if the permission included subjects’ consent, which forms a part of ethical research practice. The sample size was identified as 35 cases with 169 controls.
There is no clarified hypothesis stated in the study, but it could be assumed that the statement, hyperthermia effectively lowers intracranial pressure and may improve nuerological outcomes and mortality’ (Kamps et. al, 2011, p 1).
Internal and external Validity
Internal validity relates to how well the study was conducted for accuracy of perceived results and conclusion. It would appear that the methodology and design were appropriately utilized. However, data analysis techniques could have greatly compromised internal validity since there was no pretesting of statistical measurements. External validity refers to the extent to which this study could be generalized to other similar populations. Due to the lack of supporting literature review references addressing similar research in the document, venerability as well as external validity is limited.
Main study results
The main study results reflect an accurate account of research findings based on the methodology and design applied. These two features can be considered consistent with research protocol except for subject consent clarification, which was not precise. As such, the results proved that cases and controls were appropriate matched to produce the desired outcomes.
Strengths and limitations
An obvious strength in this research study is the appropriateness of the methodology and design. The design even though simplistic offered enough scope for investigators to accurately match 169 controls with 35 cases. Hence, a limitation lies in the inability of general-ability to adjacent populations.
Discussion and recommendation
During the discussion it was clarified that this study was the first systemic analysis of SDD in severe brain injury patients undergoing hypothermic treatment. This explains the lack of supportive literature. However, in the methodology it was not clarified that the 169 controls were received SDD. In the discussion comprehensive details regarding specific infections were explained for verification of results.
The conclusion derived from methodology data collected and analyzed pertained to hyperthermia does not increase risk to infection with patients treated with SDD. They issue of infection as an outcome of hyperthermia treatment in relation to SDD seems still unclear in how the conclusion was derived.
This being the first systemic analysis of SDD in severe brain injury patients undergoing hypothermic treatment, there is need for more replicable studies tom validate results received in this one.
Franklin, M (2012). Understanding Research: Coping with the Quantitative-Qualitative .
Divide. London and New York: Routledge
Howell, K. (2013) Introduction to the Philosophy of Methodology. London: Sage Publications
Kamps, M. Bisschops, L. van der Hoven, J., & Hoedemaekers, C. (2011). Hyperthermia does
not increase the risk of infection. Kamps critical care, 15 R48
Nieswiadomy, R.(2011). Foundations in Nursing Research (6th Edition) (Nieswiadomy,
Foundations of Nursing Research. New York: Sage.
Silverman, D. (2011). Qualitative Research: Issues of Theory, Method and Practice (3rdd ed.).
London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi, Singapore: Sage Publications
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