Dissertation Introduction On Object Naming
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This paper seeks to explore the various works that other people have done on inhibition in picture naming. Most of them have written on picture naming performance. This research analyses the findings and processes adopted by these researchers in their study of the subject. By drawing from the different research works, factors that influence the degree of picture naming will be examined and looked at in different perspectives. This will be done with an effort to calculate and determine the mean time for response naming. This is also called naming response time. The research will majorly be based on how participants with different semantic inferences responded in picture naming (Hernandes & Reyes, 2002). This research will draw its arguments from the works of David Howard and Shao et al. These two researchers have done extensive research on this subject and produced different papers all of which can be relied on to provide vital information concerning the subject of study (Shao, 2012).
My paper will also look and various aspects of language processes. This research will attempt to investigate the correlation that affects word process and how the same is influenced by sematic competition. The study of language processes is important because it influences picture naming and other cognitive learning processes that are going to be studied in the research.
What Other Researchers Have Said
Researchers have made very interesting findings with respect to object naming. Shao et all is one such researchers. He did a comprehensive study on object naming which addressed several issues related to prediction of object naming time. Shao conducted a result on selective inhibition and nonselective inhibition and compiled his findings in picture naming performance. He defined selective inhibition as the ability of individuals to overcome certain competing responses. Non selective inhibition on the other hand is concerned with the ability to handle unwanted responses. It enables individuals to overcome such responses.
His research mainly concerned itself with picture naming. He mainly used detractor words in order to gauge the participants’ response. The distractors were majorly words that could be related to the picture. A picture of a dog, for instance, could be paired with the word cat. This is likely to affect the participant’s appreciation of the picture. Their results painted an interesting picture. The results brought out the difference that exists between selective inhibition and non-selective inhibition in picture naming in several ways. It was one of the first results to bring out this difference so clearly (Kroll et al, 1988). This also forms part of the similarity between my study and that of Shao. The major difference is that I will focus on a little much more. While Shao et al adopted a rather simplistic approach to the subject, my research will involve certain elements that will make naming a bit complex.
In my research, the objects under study will be semantically grouped. This will make them more difficult to name. My objects will be those that are closely related. Research has shown that objects that are closely related are more difficult to name compared to those that are distinctly different. A good example is two sets of object one consisting entirely of different types of fruits while the other contain objects that are not related. The other set could contain a fruit, an animal or a car. Participants will find it much easier to name objects in the set with unrelated and distinctly different items in comparison to the set containing different forms of one type of item. It has been established that the process of naming closely related items is more complex and would take individuals more time as compared to that of naming objects that are distinctively different. The latter will, therefore, take less time.
About My Research
My research is going to be slightly different because it will dare go beyond what many researchers have looked at. Previous research projects have focused on the correlation between different elements involved in object naming. Such previous research papers however did not looks the concept of naming objects that are semantically grouped. When objects are semantically grouped, the process of naming becomes much more complex. Such is the challenge that this paper is going to take in opening new frontiers in the research on object naming and related subjects (Levelt et al, 1999). My paper is going to look at certain aspects of inhibition that Shao et all failed to look at in their research. This will add quite generously to the body of knowledge that is already available on the subject from different sources including the work of Shaw and Howard. The paper may, however, adopt the same approach as these previous researches as this will enable them to work under the same factors as those who have studies and experimented on this topic before.
My paper will also rely on the findings of David Howard et al looked at picture naming methods and problems associated with picture naming. They also looked at at least two therapy methods applicable in solving these problems (Cook & Mayer, 2008). Ty used for participants, each of which had problems of aphasia. Using these participants, they were able to study the various processes that they used to process pictures in the naming process. They were required to match pictures under controlled conditions. The use of semantic treatment made their approach unique and slightly more complex than that adopted by Shao and colleagues in his research. His methods are very similar to those that this report is going to adopt. Howard et all used a method whereby the participants were subjected to a total of four sessions using each of the methods chosen. The participants were measured progressively (Cornway et al, 2005). Measurements of the progress of the participants were measured after every week and any improvements in picture naming noted carefully. The results indicated that the participating patients had improved tremendously over the period. This trend continued to the end of the four session after which the final measurements were taken. It was noted that while there were minor disparities in the level of progress of each participant, the trend was generally the same and most of them had responded well to the therapy.
Since they had opted to use two sets of treatment on the participants, it became necessary that the right data be obtained and recorded to support their findings. This was going to enable them to gauge the effects of the specific types of therapy used without which the results of the research would not be useful. The two types of therapy used were phonological therapy and semantic therapy (Monsell et al, 1992). The patients were, however, subjected to the same conditions with equal number of patients being taken for each therapy. The study indicated that there had not been any difference between the phonological conditions and the semantic conditions to which the participants had been subjected. The methods adopted by Howard and Shao in their research projects are therefore going to form an important reference point in my research. A parallel will also be drawn between my findings and their findings to determine how the two could be used to supplement each other.
My Research Question
The research question is very important because it is going to form the foundation of the study. It is going to guide me throughout the research process by enriching my hypothesis and methodology as it embodies the ultimate goal of the research. My research will seek to determine how inhibitory tests predict object naming. It will therefore go into the heart of the works of both Howard and Shao. The process will lay emphasis on the individual reaction time of the participants in the process on naming pictures. This, as we will learn in the source of the research, will be determined by a number of factors. The research will identify a number of stimuli and group them semantically before participants are made to experience them. This approach will create a very big difference in relation to the studies previously done on the subject. The naming of semantically grouped objects comes with numerous challenges and the naming time will often be affected to a very large extent. This time will increase significantly. But it is also possible to realize increased time in picture naming in situations where the pictures in question are not semantically grouped. This will be because the fact that the pictures will be mixed up will most likely confuse the participants, or cause them more time to tell between the different pictures (Bower, 1975). If such be the case, it is important that the exact factors that have contributed to increased time in the naming of pictures are isolated so that the same is not confused with other factors that may also be at play.
This study will also seek to determine the correlation between the reaction time and the type of objects chosen for naming. It is likely that the naming time for a set of objects comprising animals, for instance, may be very different from that required to name non-living things such as cars, houses, boxes and any such objects.
The research will also concern itself with the actual cognitive processes that are involved naming of pictures McNamara, 1992). This is because the cognitive predisposition of the participants is critical in determining those amounts of time they will require to respond when it comes to picture naming. The result is that a steady correlation will therefore not be expected. The time will either increase or decrease depending on the circumstances of the participant in question. My study will also introduce a new aspect of naming that was not used by the previous research studies, that of naming the faces of some famous people. The choice of such faces must, however, be made carefully. This is because it would only be fair that the participants are asked to name faces they are likely to know. What should differ is the time required by each participant to respond to the faces given. There should be no instances where some of the participants are not able to identify the faces because they have never come across them before. While it is understood that not all the participants cannot be entirely accurate, errors are not expected to be those that touch on the identity of the faces (Badre et al, 2005). Other than the pictures and the faces, participants are also going to be required to identify colors, as well as different shades of the same color. The time taken by the participants to respond to these tasks will also be recorded. This will help in the calculation of the final naming response time determined for each of the participants subjected to the naming task.
My Research Method
Given the nature of my research, including its objectives and the hypotheses formulated, a quantitative approach will be favored in my research. Because it is a correlational, study, it is only the quantitative approach that will enable me to process the likely small changes that will ultimately make up the findings of my research project. In this respect, my research will largely be similar to that of Howard and Shao. The two researchers also use quantitative methods to arrive at their findings. My research will majorly deal with object naming and inhibition test. These are the same subjects that Shao and Howard deal with in their research. My research is, therefore, meant to be furtherance to what they have already done. But given my integrated approach to the same question they sought to answer, I will most likely be able to do much more than they did in terms of enriching the subject of naming.
My research will also make use of object variables. I will use the images of objects, animals and fruits. The choice of these objects is informed by the fact that my patients interact with them in their everyday life. As a result, they are more likely to be able to identify them appropriately during the research process. It must be noted, however, that in addition to the objects mentioned, which are more or less the same as the objects that Shao uses in his research, my research will involve additional variables that were not used by either of the two researchers referred to here. The new variables that I will introduce are human faces and colors. The use of faces of famous people and different colors, and shades of colors is going to enable me to come up with more comprehensive and more encompassing findings in with respect to response time in image naming. In conducting my correlational study, I will employ the use of three main cognitive predictors. I will also use one criterion.
Like all research project, I will kick off my research by dealing with the issues of consent with respect to the participants I will be using in the research. This is an ethical issue that must be handled delicately to ensure that all legal requirements that relate to consent are met. Before making an attempt to get the consent of my participants, I will make sure that they understand fully what the research entails (Cerk & Gerrig, 1983). This will include the expected research process, the final objectives meant to be achieved and the risks, if any, of participating in the research project. I will ensure that all the participants are duly informed of their rights, and the role they are expected to play in the research. Particularly important is the right of the participants to withdraw from the process at any point during the subsistence of the research project, and even after the actual project is complete as long as they are still considered part of the project. Each participant will be issued with the forms where all these will be explained (Caramazza, 1997). They will be expected and advised to go through them carefully to make sure that they understand the implication of their involvement in the research project before they finally decide to be part of it.
It is also important that the images and other objects that will be used in the study be introduced to the participants well before the actual research process (Harley, 1993). This will make them familiar with the objects and also prepare them for what to expect during the actual research process.
The actual research process will involve a lot of activities. To begin with, the participants will be asked to complete different tests (Baddeley, 1986). Using projectors, participants will be asked to name words which will appear on the screen. This test will be very challenging because the words themselves will be those of different colors. Words such as blue, red, green and yellow will appear on the screen and the participants will be expected not to merely read the word, which will also signify a color, but to identify the color of the font used to write the word. This will be a new aspect of the research that was missing in the previous research works by Shao on the same subject. The fact that the words themselves denote colors is expected to challenge the patients who may mistakenly read the words instead of indicating the color of the font. As the participants name the colors, the color naming time will be recorded for each participant and to determine how long they take to do so. This trend will also be used to determine which of the colors show is more difficult to name depending on the amount of time taken by different participants to identify and name it.
In this research, the independent variable will be the objects to be named. These will be a number of colors. All the participants will, however, be required to name the same set of colors for consistence (Brown & Heathcote, 2003). This is very important to avoid possible errors in the final results of the research. The process, which will mainly focus on inhibition, will also use face naming where the same set of faces will be presented to the participants (Luce, 1959). They will then be asked to identify them and the time they take to do this recorded.
It is common for research projects to expose participants to one form of hazard or another. Most of the time, such hazards are contains as much as possible so that the chances of the participants suffering as a result of the hazards are reduced. Research projects can also expose participants to different forms of risks. This research, however, is going to be free from such hazards and risks. The participants are, therefore, not expected to suffer any side effects of during and after the research process (Baayen, Piepenbrock, & Van Rijn, 1993). This is mainly due to the nature of the result itself. Unlike many research projects that require participants to perform or be part of some physical acts, this research will only require participants to give their response to different questions or identify colors. No sample will be taken from them and only their response will be recorded for use in the compilation of the final report.
My Research, Shao and Howard’s Works
The main difference between my research and the work of Shao and Howard id the methods used. This includes the objects used for the study. Shao, for instance used objects and motion pictures. He uses undergraduate students in his study. He also uses black and white drawings both of which are very conspicuous. Shao also uses math operations in his study in addition to the English words used. In his speed naming tasks, he makes use of 162 line and different actions which the student participants are expected to identify and name. He ensures that the drawings are of different visual complexities to test the naming ability of the participants under different conditions. This is important as the actual environment in which students normally have to identify objects is never standard but is made up of varying factors. He asks the students to begin by naming the object pictures before they can do the same to motion pictures. He does this particularly because object pictures require more concentration to appreciate and identify as compared to motion objects which are easily seen. This is different from the procedure employed in my research where no motion objects are used. While in both instances the students are asked to identify the pictures, Shao decides to add motion pictures to test if the participants would take a shorter time to identify them as compared to still pictures. Shao finds, in his conclusion, that inhibiting ability plays a critical role in object naming. This is similar to what we expect to find except that our semantic grouping is likely to yield much more information concerning picture naming.
Howard also undertakes a research on semantic inhibition. He adopts a highly quantitative approach and applies different models to come up with results that can stand the test of time. He comes up with very interesting results on semantic inhibition. His research, however, is geared more towards speech production that picture naming (Arnell, Stokes & Maclean, 2010). He concludes that the different models he uses can be modified in order to accommodate the results that have been realized in earlier research.
Howard’s results are very important as they provide an insight into how object naming can be improved in learning situations and in other cases that require such therapy Howard, 2005). His contribution is immense to the extent that research methodology in semantic inhibition is concerned. He provides a new avenue through which more research can be done on both object naming and phonology with reduced chances of errors, which might compromise the credibility of the results (Morton, 1979). His finding that semantic inhibition or repetition priming can be of great use in semantic to phonology mapping is highly valuable given that many areas still exist in this field that have not been fully researched. He makes further findings on semantic printing that can enrich the academic debate in both semantics and phonology. His findings are of great help to me in the course of my research. They provide a constant point of reference in many stages of the result. The resourcefulness of his work can, therefore not be ignored in any research in the field of semantics if credible findings are to be made. The works of both Shao and Howard are therefore going to form a strong foundation on which this result is going to be built.
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