Example Of Research Paper On Actuarial And Clinical Assessment Methods
Actuarial approaches are more accurate and objective, but require the collection of a considerable amount of data in order to come to a determination. It asserts that past associations among measurable and specified outcome and predictor variables are ultimately determined by mechanical, explicit and fixed rules. Effectively, this approach leads to the consistent estimation of risk. Most empirical studies show that actual approaches are either equal to or better than clinical assessments across a variety of settings. However, the application of actuarial assessments is limited by the fact psychiatric and psychological analysis needs to emphasize an individual as a unique entity as against a class member. A further disadvantage stems from the potential of hubris in giving too much control to data may create detachment from the patient, which in turn results in actual or perceived lack of care, confidence or authority.
Clinical assessments rely on subjective human judgment of any available evidence, dependent on the level of professional experience and education. Structured clinical approaches may be used to improve objectivity. However, this approach is limited by the lack of consistency in risk assessment, not least because the process is subjective, inaccurate and inductive. Effectively, despite the legal recognition of this method the ability to accurately distinguish patients who are susceptible to risk from those who are not is dubious. In addition, clinicians can come to different conclusions even with the same clinical evidence experience, education and subjective judgments are different. As a practitioner, I think a healthy mix of both the actuarial and the structured clinical assessments would be best depending on the facts of each case. In the interests of objectivity, I am more inclined to use actuarial methods, but I will only when sufficient and reliable data is available.
Juvenile Sex Offenders
It is critical to realize that serious crimes including murder, forcible rape and aggravated assault committed by children have similar effects on victims and society as crimes committed freely willing adults. It is, therefore, understandable that societies across the world are increasingly intolerant of criminal deviancy among minors, because of the threat that such crime poses to society. This intolerance has been manifested through the expansion of transfer laws and the reduction of the ages of criminal responsibility across multiple states in the United States. In more than 45 states, juvenile courts retain the discretion to waive jurisdiction on a case-by-case basis in order to pave the way for the juvenile’s criminal prosecution and possible treatment of juveniles as adults. The key point is that judges are in charge of the system, and in the case of Andrew Aguilar appears to be as consequence of a failure in the system as against a rule.
In Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002), the Supreme Court held that minors lack an established sense of accountability/responsibility and are emotionally immature to be accorded the same treatment as adults. The Court ruled that minors remain susceptible to societal influences (or lack thereof), which drive them to crime and bad judgment, but they remain amenable to positive influences. I am partial to this latter perspective, especially given Andrew Aguilar’s situation and the fact that the treatment of children as adults may hurt them even more. It is impossible to argue with the fact that children’s criminal culpability must be diminished on account of their minority. In fact, the high malleability of their characters renders them perfect f or alternative correctional and rehabilitative facilities in the community. While I share in the desire to curb all forms of crime, I think that if it is really true that juvenile are as dangerous, they the system must review each case on its own merit.
Blaming the Victim
The successive civil rights campaigns and the horror of most crimes have led the uncritical socialization of the fact that holding incest rape and other crime victims, the poor, minorities and the disabled responsible for their misfortunes is the utmost injustice and betrayal of fellow human beings. The high emotions that characterize this debate have rendered it impossible to come to an objective realization of the nature of crimes, risk behaviours, discrimination and prejudice. However, it is possible for even the strongest believers of the “don’t blame the victim” concept to admit to themselves that sometimes (however rarely) risk behaviours on the part of the victim may predispose them to harm. From teens, that drop out of school and join gangs, to adults that engage in prostitution or abuse drugs, it is difficult to argue that they do not expose themselves to the risk of victimization. This is worsened by perceived weaknesses due to age, gender and race, which, unfortunately, have deeply founded historical difficulties that colour the discourse today. It is however critical to the biased and unreasonable attitudes towards a person or group, and the actual actions that deny human or participation rights due to prejudice. The success of the “don’t blame the victim” dynamic has rendered law enforcement officers unwillingly of pursuing investigations more aggressively, which in turn hurts effectiveness and efficiency.
Arthur, P., & Waugh, R. (2008). 555 Status Offenses and the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act: The Exception that Swallowed the Rule. Seattle Journal for Social Justice, 7, 555-570.
CBS. (2010, May 10). Juvenile Sex Offenders Listed with Adult Criminals. Retrieved Feb 28, 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PKakVfPgsC8
Gabbidon., S., Penn, E., Jordan, K., & Higgins, G. (2009). The Influence of Race/Ethnicity on the Perceived Prevalence and Support for Racial Profiling at Airports. Criminal Justice Policy Review September vol. 20 no. 3, 344-358.
Hamilton, J. D. (2001). Do we under utilise actuarial judgement and decision analysis? Evid Based Mental Health 4, 102-103 doi:10.1136/ebmh.4.4.102.
Rich, K., & Seffrin, P. (2012). Police Interviews of Sexual Assault Reporters: Do Attitudes Matter? Violence and Victims, Volume 27, Number 2, 263-78.
US Department of Justice. (2011). Trying Juveniles as Adults: An Analysis of State Transfer Laws and Reporting. National Report Series.