Free Essay About Fingerprints Of The Gods
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Graham Hancock, the author of Fingerprints of the Gods, has written various
books about lost civilizations, forgotten places, unusual markings, and discoveries of things that people nowadays should know about. His works have brought up controversial questions about humanity’s antiquity. He started writing in the early 1980’s, and his bestseller book came in 1992 with the publication of The Sign and the Seal, an ambitious investigation of the whereabouts of the lost Ark of the Covenant. His next bestselling book came in 1995 --Fingerprints of the Gods, which displayed Hancock’s adeptness in creating a new genre in writing.
Hancock started the book with a letter, a correspondence between Professor Charles Hapgood and Harold Ohlmeyer, USAF Commander. The two were analyzing how the Piri Reis World Map was drawn incorrectly. The first chapter started with how Hancock will try to trace lost civilizations, their forgotten clans, tribes, and culture, together with the traces and clues they left so people of today may be able to tell their stories. His discovery was fuelled when he found out that there were maps, which depicted the Antarctica as a non-glacial zone (Hancock 24). It was then speculated that it was mapped by some unknown civilization around 4000 BC (Hancock 24). His first point in the book is that people know that ancient men were not progressive hominids; however, he also wondered how these so-called ancestors were able to draw maps (Hancock 28). He also saw the interference of extraterrestrial and supernatural beings for the unusual and extraordinary markings and sculptures that men could not have done (Hancock 57). Since Hancock’s curiosity was piqued by the possibility of continents being close together before, he was able to see the similarities of other countries like Egypt and Mexico (169). Hancock also pointed out how the ancient people thought about their apocalypses (Hancock 197). His last point was the connection of the ancient Egyptians and the other extinct civilizations to the cataclysms that happened before (Hancock 400).
Hancock retold in detailed narration his discoveries and travels to places where he thought that lost civilizations lived. He also produced clues on how they survived in their everyday lives. One of the things Hancock discussed in his book was the Nazcan lines found in Peru. The mystery of the lines and geometric shapes still have an unknown purpose. Scholars concluded that these lines are not made by extraterrestrials but by the primitive tribesmen of Nazca who showed their artistic self-expression (Hancock 46). In the same regard, Haughton also proved that there were markings and geometric shapes, which are called geoglyphs (Haughton 169). Haughton added that since there were a lot of speculations on how these lines and shapes were drawn, Jim Wood, writer and publisher, together with Julian Nott, an English balloonist, tried to test the theory that these lines were created through help from the air (171). By creating a balloon with materials available in the Nazca culture, Nott and Wood were able to discover that it was possible for the lines to have been drawn through the aid of air (Haughton 171).Though Nazcans may have had the capability of flying, there is still no evidence about it (Haughton 171). Haughton also said that these lines may be drawn to show the directions of the water source or for religious purposes (Haughton 175). In this regard, both Hancock and Haughton told of the unknown evidence of how those figures were created, and they both dismissed the fact that they were made by extraterrestrial beings; however, in Haughton’s explanation, other people have tried to recreate the figures to discover how these lines were created, and he also explored the possibility of its purpose in religion and source for water
During Hancock’s travel from Peru to Bolivia, he stumbled onto the religious traditions left in Peru. Among these was the idolatry of the Incas. The name ‘Viracochas’ surfaced, which were the mysterious beings connected to the Nazca lines. According to Hancock, the revered god was described as lean bearded white men who were past their middle age, and who wore sandals and dressed in long flowing cloaks (Hancock 53). This caused the Incas to believe that the Spanish conquistadores, together with their demigods, were the ‘Viracochas’ (Hancock 54). Viracocha was also seen by the Incas as a healer and a teacher (Hancock 55). In addition, they claimed that Viracocha came after the deluge of the great flood and was seen as an inspiration because he was seen everywhere, telling people to love one another (Hancock 54). Another author, Reese, expounded on the belief of the Incas in ‘Viracochas’ as an easier way for the Spaniards to convince the Incas to buy into the religion they brought to them (Reese 145). On this point about religion, Hancock was only able to reiterate how ‘Viracocha’ was seen by the Incas but was not able to relate how the Spaniards lured the Incas to believe in the religion they brought with them.
Hancock also traced various theories of the wiping out of these ancient tribes. He described that some depicted this apocalypse as being caused by indescribable cold, fire, earthquakes, and the derangement of the skies, as well as by a monster chasing the sun (Hancock 202-206). As an example, the Avestic Aryans said that when there is coldness, darkness is also present; thus, people should change through starvation (Hancock 199). Malik confirmed as well that Aryans were wiped out because of natural disasters, as examined through the skeletons unearthed (Malik 56). Malik added that the most acceptable theory was that the river changed its course and that there was drought, which made people die of starvation, particularly because of the lack of fertile land (Malik 57). Hancock, on the other hand, explained that the Aryans may have died because of natural disasters and of starvation, although he was not able to state the possibility of a change in the course of the river, which was probably the main source of their food.
In his book, Hancock also talked about the Ice Age right after the catastrophic things that happened, which may have caused the disappearance of so many tribes. Hancock cited that the Ice Age eradicated around 40 million animals, and this was observed as well in Europe, Asia and Australia (Hancock 208). Imbrie and Imbrie supported the disappearance of a lot of animals being attributed to the Ice Age (Imbrie and Imbrie 33). Similarly, another author reinforced the glacial theory for the extinction of most genera; however, an explanation of the epochs before the final wave of the Ice Age was not included. On this matter, Snook (4) cited that the first epoch was a lethal period for big animals on land, although the animals in the oceans were not affected (Snook 4). On the other hand, the second epoch of the Ice Age killed the smaller animals (Snook 5). With similar theories on the extinction of animals being caused by the Ice Age, Hancock failed to include the epochs, which caused the extermination of a lot of animals during that time.
In the latter part of the book, Hancock discussed the discovery of the unseen connection of the cataclysms that caused the extinction of great civilizations. In particular, he put the Sphinx at the center off his explanation about the loss of these great civilizations. In his interview with John West, these civilizations were able to learn a little from other civilization as they wandered around the world; thus, enabling them to redo the Sphinx (Hancock 407). He also stated that the Sphinx was not for Khafre, and it may have looked like the pharaoh but because of erosion, its face was marred (Hancock 407-408). Peet also cited that the Sphinx pre-dates the dynasty before the Egyptians (Peet 246). The explanations of Hancock about the connection were agreeable and underscored important facts about the connections.
Hancock, Graham. Fingerprints of the Gods. Three Rivers Press: New York, 1995. Print.
Haughton, Brian. Hidden History: Lost Civilizations, Secret Knowledge, and Ancient Histories.
Career Press: USA, 2007. Print.
Imbrie, John & Katherine Imbrie. Ice Ages: Solving the Mystery. Enslow Publishing: USA,
Malik, Shakti. Indian Civilization: The Formative Period. Indian Institute of Advance Study:
New Delhi, 1987. Print.
Peet, Preston. Ancient Aliens, Lost Civilizations, Astonishing Archaeology, and Hidden History.
Red Wheel/Welser LLC: CA, 2005. Print.
Reese, Veronica. From Viracocha to the Virgin of Copacabana: Representation of the Sacred at
Lake Titicaca. University of Texas: USA, 1997. Print.
Snook, Jim. Ice Age Extinction: Cause and Human Consequences. Algora Publishing: USA,
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