Free Essay About The Management Of Organizational Justice
Q. What is Organizational Justice? List and explain the various components of organizational justice.
According to Mello, in his Strategic Human Resource Management book, the „organizational justice” notion was introduced by Greenberg in 1987, defining it as the individual’s perception of the reactions to fairness in an organization. Organizational justice is a personal evaluation on the moral and ethical standing of the managerial conduct (Mello).
Justice refers to the idea that an action or a decision is morally correct (defined in relation to ethics, religion, honesty, law and fairness). Normally, individuals are paying attention to the justice of the everyday events and situations, in a variety of contexts. Fairness often becomes the major interest of an organization that does not want the implications of injustice that is being perceived by its members to have a negative impact on their attitudes and behaviors at work.
Research in the organizational justice field highlights its multiple practical implications in correctly treating the firm’s employee. The perception of justice leads to positive organizational attitudes and behaviors, including increased job satisfaction and citizen involvement. However, if an employee perceives the injustice of their manager or management, they become less or not at all willing to express a positive attitude, showing, on the contrary, negative attitudes and behaviors, amongst which could even be sabotage or theft.
Theories defining the types of organizational justice, allowing predictions related to them, identify three steps: an event or element in the environment, an individual assessment of that event according to a set of rules and an assessment of the justice of that event. This basic model is simple, but organizational justice theories differ depending on the types of items that are being highlighted, the types of rules applied and of the structure of the assessments related to the present type of organizational justice. If we set our aim to study and understand organizational justice, it is necessary to consider the three forms under which it may take form, namely: distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice.
The distributive justice was the first type of justice defined, reflecting the study of the results, or more accurately, the accuracy (justice) of the results. Distributive justice is concerned with the appropriateness of the outcomes, being based on 3 components: equity, equality and need. Consequently to this form of justice, an employee will believe that they were properly rewarded if there is a balance between the contributions brought to the organization through their work and the reward obtained in exchange.
The second type of justice is represented by the procedural justice that refers to the justice of the proceeding results. It represents the means by which outcomes are being allocated and not specifically to the outcomes themselves (Mello). This type of justice is based on 5 components: consistency, lack of bias, accuracy, representation of all concerned, correction and ethics.
Moreover, researchers have revealed a third type of organizational justice, represented by the interactional justice. Interactional justice addresses interpersonal and informational exchanges around the procedures and the results. It refers to how an individual is treating another. An individual is said to be interactionally just if they appropriately share information, avoiding rude or cruel remarks.
The distinction between the types of organizational justice helps clarifying the element type being highlighted, of the adequate theoretical rules to be applied as well as the basic structure. “The ill effects of injustice can be partially mitigated if at least one component of justice is maintained”. (Mello)
Mello, Jeffrey. Strategic Human Resource Management. Cengage Learning, 2014. Print.